# Appendix A: Logic Gates and Boolean Algebra Used in the Book

This appendix provides a brief set of notes on Boolean algebra laws and their use. It is assumed that the reader already has knowledge of these laws. The appendix is provided as a reference only for the Boolean algebra used in this book.

## A.1 BASIC GATE SYMBOLS USED IN THE BOOK WITH BOOLEAN EQUATIONS

**Figure A.1** Basic logic gates.

## A.2 THE EXCLUSIVE OR AND EXCLUSIVE NOR

The exclusive OR and exclusive NOR (Figure A.2) are well used in logic systems.

**Figure A.2** Exclusive OR and exclusive NOR symbols.

## A.3 LAWS OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA

These are presented in terms of the Boolean logic equation and gate circuit.

### A.3.1 Basic OR Rules

**Figure A.3** Boolean algebra basic OR rules.

### A.3.2 Basic AND Rules

**Figure A.4** Boolean algebra basic AND rules.

### A.3.3 Associative and Commutative Laws

**Figure A.5** Associative and commutative laws.

### A.3.4 Distributive Laws

**Figure A.6** Distributive laws.

### A.3.5 Auxiliary Law for Static 1 Hazard Removal

The auxiliary ...