This book presents both fundamental knowledge and latest achievements of this rapidly growing field in the last decade. It presents a complete and concise picture of the the state-of-the-art in the field, encompassing the most active international research groups in the world. Led by contributions from leading global research groups, the book discusses the functionalization of semiconductor surface. Dry organic reactions in vacuum and wet organic chemistry in solution are two major categories of strategies for functionalization that will be described. The growth of multilayer-molecular architectures on the formed organic monolayers will be documented. The immobilization of biomolecules such as DNA on organic layers chemically attached to semiconductor surfaces will be introduced. The patterning of complex structures of organic layers and metallic nanoclusters toward sensing techniques will be presented as well.