YING WEI CAI AND STEVEN L. BERNASEK
A number of different surface analytical methods are used in the research described in this book. These methods provide structural, compositional, and molecular identity and reactivity information about the semiconductor surface before, during, and after functionalization. This chapter briefly summarizes the most commonly used of these techniques, providing a description of the operation of the method and an indication of the sort of information provided by the technique. There are a number of review papers and monographs  that describe these analytical tools in much more detail. This chapter is not meant to replace these references, but to provide a close at hand introduction to the techniques for researchers interested in the functionalization of semiconductor surfaces.
Compared to wet methods conducted in ambient environments, the dry methods for semiconductor surface modification and functionalization are performed in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) that accommodates a wide spectrum of surface analytical techniques. With these techniques and under UHV conditions, the surface reaction process can be well controlled and characterized to study and explore the fundamentals of “in situ” modification and functionalization of semiconductor surfaces.
The development of UHV systems that can attain pressures from 10−7 to 10−11 Torr not only enables the preparation and maintenance of a clean surface ...