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Memory Systems by David Wang, Spencer Ng, Bruce Jacob

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CHAPTER 13

DRAM Memory Controller

In modern computer systems, processors and I/O devices access data in the memory system through the use of one or more memory controllers. Memory controllers manage the movement of data into and out of DRAM devices while ensuring protocol compliance, accounting for DRAM-device-specific electrical characteristics, timing characteristics, and, depending on the specific system, even error detection and correction. DRAM memory controllers are often contained as part of the system controller, and the design of an optimal memory controller must consist of system-level considerations that ensure fairness in arbitration for access between different agents that read and store data in the same memory system.

The design ...

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