Regarded as one of the most influential management books of all time, this fourth edition of Leadership and Organizational Culture transforms the abstract concept of culture into a tool that can be used to better shape the dynamics of organization and change. This updated edition focuses on today's business realities. Edgar Schein draws on a wide range of contemporary research to redefine culture and demonstrate the crucial role leaders play in successfully applying the principles of culture to achieve their organizational goals.
Table of Contents
- Preface to Fourth Edition
- The Author
I. Organizational Culture and Leadership Defined
1. THE CONCEPT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE: WHY BOTHER?
- 1.1. What Needs to Be Explained?
- 1.2. How Does the Concept of Culture Help?
- 1.3. Culture: An Empirically Based Abstraction
- 1.4. Culture Formally Defined
- 1.5. Culture Content
- 1.6. Can Culture Be Inferred from Only Behavior?
- 1.7. Do Occupations Have Cultures?
- 1.8. Summary and Conclusions
- 2. THE THREE LEVELS OF CULTURE
3. CULTURES IN ORGANIZATIONS: TWO CASE EXAMPLES
- 3.1. The Digital Equipment Corp.
- 3.2. Ciba-Geigy
- 3.3. Summary and Conclusions
- 4. MACROCULTURES, SUBCULTURES, AND MICROCULTURES
- 1. THE CONCEPT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE: WHY BOTHER?
II. The Dimensions of Culture
5. ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT EXTERNAL ADAPTATION ISSUES
- 5.1. Shared Assumptions About Mission, Strategy, and Goals
- 5.2. Shared Assumptions About Goals Derived from the Mission
- 5.3. Shared Assumptions About Means to Achieve Goals: Structure, Systems, and Processes
- 5.4. Shared Assumptions About Measuring Results and Correction Mechanisms
- 5.5. Shared Assumptions About Remedial and Repair Strategies
- 5.6. Summary and Conclusions
6. ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT MANAGING INTERNAL INTEGRATION
- 6.1. Creating a Common Language and Conceptual Categories
- 6.2. Defining Group Boundaries and Identity
- 6.3. Distributing Power, Authority, and Status
- 6.4. Developing Rules for Relationships
- 6.5. Allocating Rewards and Punishment
- 6.6. Managing the Unmanageable and Explaining the Unexplainable
- 6.7. Summary and Conclusions
- 7. DEEPER CULTURAL ASSUMPTIONS: WHAT IS REALITY AND TRUTH?
8. DEEPER CULTURAL ASSUMPTIONS: THE NATURE OF TIME AND SPACE
- 8.1. Assumptions About Time
- 8.2. Assumptions About the Nature of Space
- 8.3. Distance and Relative Placement
- 8.4. Summary and Conclusions
9. DEEPER CULTURAL ASSUMPTIONS: HUMAN NATURE, ACTIVITY, AND RELATIONSHIPS
- 9.1. Assumptions About Human Nature
- 9.2. Assumptions About Appropriate Human Activity
- 9.3. Assumptions About the Nature of Human Relationships
- 9.4. Summary and Conclusions
10. CULTURE TYPOLOGIES AND CULTURE SURVEYS
- 10.1. Why Typologies and Why Not?
- 10.2. Typologies That Focus on Assumptions About Authority and Intimacy
- 10.3. Typologies of Corporate Character and Culture
- 10.4. Examples of Using A Priori Criteria for Culture Evaluation
- 10.5. Summary and Conclusions
11. DECIPHERING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURES
- 11.1. Why Decipher Culture?
- 11.2. Ethical Issues in Deciphering Culture
- 11.3. Summary and Conclusions
- 5. ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT EXTERNAL ADAPTATION ISSUES
III. The Leadership Role in Building, Embedding, and Evolving Culture
12. HOW CULTURE EMERGES IN NEW GROUPS
- 12.1. Group Formation Through Originating and Marker Events
- 12.2. Stage 1: Dealing with Assumptions About Authority
- 12.3. Stage 2: Building Norms Around Intimacy
- 12.4. Stage 3: Group Work and Functional Familiarity
- 12.5. Stage 4: Group Maturity
- 12.6. Summary and Conclusions
- 13. HOW FOUNDERS/LEADERS CREATE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURES
14. HOW LEADERS EMBED AND TRANSMIT CULTURE
14.1. How Leaders Embed Their Beliefs, Values, and Assumptions
14.1.1. Primary Embedding Mechanisms
- 220.127.116.11. What Leaders Pay Attention To, Measure, and Control.
- 18.104.22.168. Leader Reactions to Critical Incidents and Organizational Crises.
- 22.214.171.124. How Leaders Allocate Resources.
- 126.96.36.199. Deliberate Role Modeling, Teaching, and Coaching.
- 188.8.131.52. How Leaders Allocate Rewards and Status.
- 184.108.40.206. How Leaders Select, Promote, and Excommunicate.
- 14.1.2. Primary Embedding Mechanisms: Some Concluding Observations
- 14.1.1. Primary Embedding Mechanisms
14.2. Secondary Articulation and Reinforcement Mechanisms
- 14.2.1. Organizational Design and Structure
- 14.2.2. Organizational Systems and Procedures
- 14.2.3. Rites and Rituals of the Organization
- 14.2.4. Design of Physical Space, Facades, and Buildings
- 14.2.5. Stories About Important Events and People
- 14.2.6. Formal Statements of Philosophy, Creeds, and Charters
- 14.3. Summary and Conclusions
- 14.1. How Leaders Embed Their Beliefs, Values, and Assumptions
- 15. THE CHANGING ROLE OF LEADERSHIP IN ORGANIZATIONAL "MIDLIFE"
16. WHAT LEADERS NEED TO KNOW ABOUT HOW CULTURE CHANGES
- 16.1. Founding and Early Growth
- 16.2. Transition to Midlife: Problems of Succession
- 16.3. Organizational Maturity and Potential Decline
- 16.4. Summary and Conclusions
- 12. HOW CULTURE EMERGES IN NEW GROUPS
IV. How Leaders Can Manage Culture Change
17. A CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR MANAGED CULTURE CHANGE
- 17.1. The Psycho-Social Dynamics of Organizational Change
- 17.2. Unfreezing/Disconfirmation
- 17.3. Survival Anxiety Versus Learning Anxiety
- 17.4. How to Create Psychological Safety
- 17.5. Cognitive Restructuring
- 17.6. Refreezing
- 17.7. Principles in Regard to Culture Change
- 17.8. Summary and Conclusions
18. CULTURE ASSESSMENT AS PART OF MANAGED ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
18.1. Rapid Deciphering—A Multistep Group Process
- 18.1.1. Step One: Obtaining Leadership Commitment
- 18.1.2. Step Two: Selecting Groups for Self-Assessment
- 18.1.3. Step Three: Selecting an Appropriate Setting for the Group Self-Assessment
- 18.1.4. Step Four: Explaining the Purpose of the Group Meeting (15 mins.)
- 18.1.5. Step Five: A Short Lecture on How to Think About Culture (15 mins.)
- 18.1.6. Step Six: Eliciting Descriptions of the Artifacts (60 mins.)
- 18.1.7. Step Seven: Identifying Espoused Values (15–30 mins.)
- 18.1.8. Step Eight: Identifying Shared Underlying Assumptions (15–30 mins.)
- 18.1.9. Step Nine: Identifying Cultural Aids and Hindrances (30–60 mins.)
- 18.1.10. Step Ten: Decisions on Next Steps (30 mins.)
- 18.2. What If Culture Elements Need to Change?
- 18.3. Summary and Conclusions
- 18.1. Rapid Deciphering—A Multistep Group Process
19. ILLUSTRATIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE CHANGES
- 19.1. Illustration 1. Beta Service Company—Rapid Change Through Behavior Modification
- 19.2. Illustration 2. MA-COM—Revising a Change Agenda as a Result of Cultural Insight
- 19.3. Illustration 3. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers—Reassessing Mission
- 19.4. Illustration 4. Apple Computer—Culture Assessment as Part of a Long-Range Planning Process
19.5. Illustration 5: Ciba-Geigy—Did the Culture Change?
19.5.1. Initial Contact and First Annual Meeting
- 220.127.116.11. Impact of First Annual Meeting.
- 18.104.22.168. First Year's Work: Getting Acquainted with the Culture.
- 22.214.171.124. Unfreezing at the Second Annual Meeting.
- 126.96.36.199. Inducing Survival Anxiety.
- 188.8.131.52. Providing Some Psychological Safety.
- 184.108.40.206. Creating a Structure for the Redirection Project: Project Task Forces as a "Parallel System"
- 19.5.2. Second Year: Consolidation of the Redirection Project
- 19.5.1. Initial Contact and First Annual Meeting
- 19.6. Summary and Conclusions
- 17. A CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR MANAGED CULTURE CHANGE
V. New Roles for Leaders and Leadership
20. THE LEARNING CULTURE AND THE LEARNING LEADER
20.1. What Might a Learning Culture Look Like?
- 20.1.1. 1. Proactivity
- 20.1.2. 2. Commitment to Learning to Learn
- 20.1.3. 3. Positive Assumptions About Human Nature (Theory Y)
- 20.1.4. 4. Belief That the Environment Can Be Managed
- 20.1.5. 5. Commitment to Truth Through Pragmatism and Inquiry
- 20.1.6. 6. Positive Orientation Toward the Future
- 20.1.7. 7. Commitment to Full and Open Task-Relevant Communication
- 20.1.8. 8. Commitment to Cultural Diversity
- 20.1.9. 9. Commitment to Systemic Thinking
- 20.1.10. 10. Belief That Cultural Analysis Is a Valid Set of Lenses for Understanding and Improving the World
- 20.2. Why These Dimensions?
- 20.3. Learning-Oriented Leadership
- 20.4. Implications for the Selection and Development of Leaders
- 20.5. Summary and Conclusions
- 20.1. What Might a Learning Culture Look Like?
21. CULTURAL ISLANDS: MANAGING MULTICULTURAL GROUPS
- 21.1. Cultural Intelligence
- 21.2. The Concept of a Temporary Cultural Island
- 21.3. Dialogue as a Cultural Island for Multicultural Exploration
- 21.4. Summary and Conclusions
- 21.5. A Final Word
- 20. THE LEARNING CULTURE AND THE LEARNING LEADER
- Title: Organizational Culture and Leadership, Fourth Edition
- Release date: August 2010
- Publisher(s): Jossey-Bass
- ISBN: 9780470190609