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Organizational Culture and Leadership, Fourth Edition by Edgar H. Schein

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Chapter 7. DEEPER CULTURAL ASSUMPTIONS: WHAT IS REALITY AND TRUTH?

As groups and organizations evolve, the assumptions they develop about external adaptation and internal integration reflect deeper assumptions about more abstract general issues around which humans need consensus to have any kind of society at all. If we cannot agree on what is real, how to determine the truth or falsity of something, how to measure time, how space is allocated, what human nature is, and how people should get along with each other, society is not possible in the first place.

Because different societies have evolved different answers to these questions, we have many different cultures in the world, and these broader macrocultures influence how groups and organizations ...

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