Chapter 5

Empirical and Discrete-Time Models

The previous three chapters focused on (i) the development of fundamental models based on material and energy balances and (ii) understanding dynamic behavior, with an emphasis on linear systems. In this chapter, we discuss the development of empirical models, that is, developing models based on plant tests. For continuous control-system design (most of the focus of this text), a study of Sections 5.1, 5.2, and 5.3 will be sufficient. The discrete models developed in Sections 5.4 and 5.5 will be useful when model predictive control (MPC) techniques are presented in Chapter 16, “Model Predictive Control,” and when digital control is studied in Module 16, “Digital Control.”

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