Alternative hypothesis (*H*_{1}), 323, 324

Analysis of variance (ANOVA), 560

completely randomized design, 560

graphical diagnostics and displays with, 577–579

hand calculation of, 566

randomized block experiments, 579–581

simultaneous confidence intervals, 572–576

Bell-shaped distributions, 55. *See also* Normal distributions

Best fit line, 108

Best fitting regression line, 459

Best fitting straight line, 459

Binomial distributions, 202–209

mean of, 208

normal approximation to, 252–255

Poisson approximation to, 219

standard deviation of, 208

Binomial random variable, 202

Binomial table, 206

Bivariate data, 85

Blind trials, 92

Block sum of squares, 583

Boundaries, class, 32

Pearson's *χ*^{2} test for goodness of fit, 531–534, 539, 550

Causal variables, 452

Causation, correlation and, 101

Cause-and-effect diagram, 17–18

Cell frequency, 32

Centerline:

on control charts, 65

Central limit theorem, 285–289

*χ*^{2} test of homogeneity, 536–544

*χ*^{2} test of independence, 546–550

Chi-square (*χ*^{2}) distribution, 375–377

with *n*–1 degrees of freedom, 376

Chi-square (*χ*^{2}) statistic, 532, 539, 550

properties, 534

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