F.8. Special Characters and More Line Breaks

When marking up text, certain characters or symbols (e.g., <) may be difficult to embed directly into an XHTML document. Some keyboards do not provide these symbols, or the presence of these symbols may cause syntax errors. For example, the markup

					<p>if x < 10 then increment x by 1 </p>

results in a syntax error because it uses the less-than character (<), which is reserved for start tags and end tags such as <p> and </p>. XHTML provides character entity references (in the form &code;) for representing special characters. We could correct the previous line by writing

					<p>if x &lt; 10 then increment x by 1</p>

which uses the character entity reference &lt; for the less-than symbol.

Figure F.9 demonstrates ...

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