DISRUPTION—THE BRUTAL ROILING OF markets, caused by customers’ ever-changing needs—drives business failure and success. Most people think that technology drives disruption, but technology merely enables disruption; changing customer needs causes it. Some companies try to recover with more innovation, more advertising, rebranding, acquisitions—and discover that these strategies do not work. Others survive disruption and even harness it to their advantage. What drives this difference? The latter group of companies keeps their focus on their customers. They understand, anticipate, and gratify their customers’ needs—and thereby not only survive disruption but also thrive on it.
Consider Patanjali, a new company competing ...