All the classical computer architectures presented up to this point have one thing in common: They all use Boolean logic, dealing with bits that are either on or off. From the basic von Neumann architecture to the most complicated parallel processing systems, all are based on binary mathematics. In addition, each is based on transistor technology. Moore’s Law, which states that the number of transistors on a single chip doubles every 18 months, cannot hold forever. The law of physics suggests that eventually transistors will become so tiny that distances between them will permit electrons to jump from one to the other, causing fatal short circuits. This suggests that we need to look in the direction of other technologies ...

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