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Essentials of Computer Organization and Architecture, 5th Edition by Null

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11.5 CPU PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION

CPU performance has long been the principal focus of system optimization efforts. There is no single way to enhance CPU performance, because CPU throughput is affected by a multitude of factors. For instance, program code affects the instruction count; the compiler influences both the instruction count and the average clock cycles per instruction; the ISA determines the instruction count and the average clock cycles per instruction; and the actual hardware organization establishes the clock cycles per instruction and the clock cycle time.

Potential CPU optimization techniques include integrated floating-point units, parallel execution units, specialized instructions, instruction pipelining, branch prediction, ...

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