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Handbook of Recycling

Book Description

Winner of the International Solid Waste Association's 2014 Publication Award, Handbook of Recycling is an authoritative review of the current state-of-the-art of recycling, reuse and reclamation processes commonly implemented today and how they interact with one another. The book addresses several material flows, including iron, steel, aluminum and other metals, pulp and paper, plastics, glass, construction materials, industrial by-products, and more. It also details various recycling technologies as well as recovery and collection techniques. To completely round out the picture of recycling, the book considers policy and economic implications, including the impact of recycling on energy use, sustainable development, and the environment.

With contemporary recycling literature scattered across disparate, unconnected articles, this book is a crucial aid to students and researchers in a range of disciplines, from materials and environmental science to public policy studies.

  • Portrays recent and emerging technologies in metal recycling, by-product utilization and management of post-consumer waste
  • Uses life cycle analysis to show how to reclaim valuable resources from mineral and metallurgical wastes
  • Uses examples from current professional and industrial practice, with policy and economic implications

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. List of Contributors
  6. Part I. Recycling in Context
    1. Chapter 1. Recycling: A Key Factor for Resource Efficiency
    2. Chapter 2. Definitions and Terminology
      1. 2.1. Introduction
      2. 2.2. Defining Recycling
      3. 2.3. Materials and Products
      4. 2.4. Applying the Product-Centric Approach—Metals
    3. Chapter 3. Recycling in Context
      1. 3.1. Introduction
      2. 3.2. Metal Recycling Considerations and Technologies
      3. 3.3. Defining Recycling Statistics
      4. 3.4. Process Efficiencies and Recycling Rate Constraints
      5. 3.5. Perspectives on Current Recycling Statistics
      6. 3.6. Summary
    4. Chapter 4. Recycling Rare Metals
      1. 4.1. Introduction
      2. 4.2. Indium
      3. 4.3. Other Examples of Rare Metals
      4. 4.4. The Distant Future: Georgescu's Last Laugh?
    5. Chapter 5. Theory and Tools of Physical Separation/Recycling
      1. 5.1. Recycling Process
      2. 5.2. Particle Size
      3. 5.3. Pulp Rheology
      4. 5.4. Properties and Property Spaces
      5. 5.5. Sampling
      6. 5.6. Mass Balances and Process Dynamics
      7. 5.7. Material Balancing
      8. 5.8. Liberation
      9. 5.9. Grade-Recovery Curves
  7. Part II. Recycling - Application & Technology
    1. Chapter 6. Recycling of Steel
      1. 6.1. Introduction
      2. 6.2. Scrap Processing and Material Streams from Scrap Processing
      3. 6.3. The Processes Used for Smelting Steel Scrap
      4. 6.4. Trends in Quality of the Scrap Available for Steel Production
      5. 6.5. Hindrances for Recycling—Tramp Elements
      6. 6.6. Purification of Scrap
      7. 6.7. To Live with Impurities
      8. 6.8. Measures to Secure Sustainable Recycling of Steel
    2. Chapter 7. Copper Recycling
      1. 7.1. Introduction
      2. 7.2. Raw Material for Copper Recycling
      3. 7.3. Processes for Recycling
      4. 7.4. Challenges in Copper Recycling
      5. 7.5. Conclusions
    3. Chapter 8. Lead Recycling
      1. 8.1. Introduction
      2. 8.2. The Lead-Acid Battery
      3. 8.3. Battery Preprocessing
      4. 8.4. Smelting
      5. 8.5. Alternative Approaches
      6. 8.6. Refining
      7. 8.7. Conclusions and Outlook
    4. Chapter 9. Zinc and Residue Recycling
      1. 9.1. Introduction
      2. 9.2. Zinc Oxide Production from Drosses
      3. 9.3. Electric Arc Furnace Dust and Other Pb, Zn, Cu-containing Residues
      4. 9.4. Zinc Recycling from Copper Industry Dusts
      5. 9.5. Fuming of Slags from Lead Metallurgy
    5. Chapter 10. Recycling of Rare Metals
      1. 10.1. Precious Metals
      2. 10.2. Rare Earth Metals
      3. 10.3. Electronic Metals
      4. 10.4. Refractory Metals (Ferro-alloys Metals, Specialty Metals)
      5. 10.5. Other Metals
    6. Chapter 11. Recycling of Lumber
      1. 11.1. Introduction
      2. 11.2. Background
      3. 11.3. Key Issues in Post-use Management of Wood
      4. 11.4. Case Study Scenarios
      5. 11.5. Summary
    7. Chapter 12. Paper Recycling
      1. 12.1. Important Facts about Paper Recycling
      2. 12.2. Stock Preparation for Paper Recycling
    8. Chapter 13. Plastic Recycling
      1. 13.1. Introduction
      2. 13.2. Use of Plastics
      3. 13.3. Plastic Recycling
      4. 13.4. Mechanical Recycling
      5. 13.5. Impact of Recycling
      6. 13.6. Conclusions and Outlook
    9. Chapter 14. Glass Recycling
      1. 14.1. Introduction
      2. 14.2. Types of Glass
      3. 14.3. Glass Manufacture
      4. 14.4. Glass Recovery for Reuse and Recycling
      5. 14.5. Reuse of Glass
      6. 14.6. Closed-Loop Recycling of Glass
      7. 14.7. Environmental Benefits of Closed-Loop Recycling of Glass
      8. 14.8. The Growth of Glass Recycling
      9. 14.9. Open-Loop Glass Recycling
      10. 14.10. Conclusions
    10. Chapter 15. Textile Recycling
      1. 15.1. Introduction
      2. 15.2. The Recycling Effort
      3. 15.3. Export of Secondhand Clothing
      4. 15.4. Conversion to New Products
      5. 15.5. Conversion of Mattresses
      6. 15.6. Conversion of Carpet
      7. 15.7. Wipers
      8. 15.8. Landfill and Incineration
      9. 15.9. Diamonds
      10. 15.10. Summary
    11. Chapter 16. Cementitious Binders Incorporating Residues
      1. 16.1. Introduction
      2. 16.2. Clinker Production: Process Flow, Alternative Fuels and Alternative Raw Materials
      3. 16.3. From Clinker to Cement: Residues in Blended Cements
      4. 16.4. Alternative Cements for the Future: Reducing the CO2 Footprint while Incorporating Residues
      5. 16.5. Conclusions
    12. Chapter 17. Industrial By-products
      1. 17.1. What is a By-product?
      2. 17.2. Major By-products and Their Generic Properties
      3. 17.3. Where and How to Use By-products
      4. 17.4. Technical and Environmental Requirements
      5. 17.5. Concluding Remarks
    13. Chapter 18. Recovery of Metals from Different Secondary Resources (Waste)
      1. 18.1. Introduction
      2. 18.2. Production of Ferroalloys from Waste
      3. 18.3. Recycling Concepts for Rare Earth Containing Magnets
    14. Chapter 19. Recycling of Carbon Fibers
      1. 19.1. Introduction
      2. 19.2. Carbon Fiber Recycling Processes
      3. 19.3. Composites Remanufacturing
      4. 19.4. Applications for Recycled Carbon Fibers and Composites
      5. 19.5. Life-Cycle Analysis of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers
      6. 19.6. Further Challenges
      7. 19.7. Conclusions
    15. Chapter 20. Recycling of Construction and Demolition Wastes
      1. 20.1. Introduction
      2. 20.2. The Existing Low-Cost Housing Technologies
      3. 20.3. Earth/Mud Building
      4. 20.4. Prefabrication Method
      5. 20.5. Lightweight Foamed or Cellular Concrete Technology
      6. 20.6. Stabilized Earth Brick Technology
      7. 20.7. Case Study
      8. 20.8. Cost-Effectiveness of Using Low-Cost Housing Technologies
      9. 20.9. Recycling Technologies and Practice
      10. 20.10. Conclusion
    16. Chapter 21. Recycling of Packaging
      1. 21.1. Introduction
      2. 21.2. Packaging Waste
      3. 21.3. Composition
      4. 21.4. Recovery and Recycling
      5. 21.5. Recovery and Collection Schemes
      6. 21.6. Concluding Remarks
    17. Chapter 22. Material-Centric (Aluminum and Copper) and Product-Centric (Cars, WEEE, TV, Lamps, Batteries, Catalysts) Recycling and DfR Rules
      1. 22.1. Introduction
      2. 22.2. Material-Centric Recycling: Aluminum and Copper
      3. 22.3. Product-Centric Recycling: Complex Sustainability Enabling and Consumer Products
      4. 22.4. Recycling Complex Multimaterial Consumer Goods: A Product-Centric Approach
      5. 22.5. Automotive Recycling/Recycling of ELVs Including Automotive Battery Recycling
      6. 22.6. Recycling of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment
      7. 22.7. Recycling of Lighting
      8. 22.8. Technology for Recycling of Batteries and Catalysts
      9. 22.9. Design for Recycling and Resource Efficiency
    18. Chapter 23. Separation of Large Municipal Solid Waste
      1. 23.1. Introduction
      2. 23.2. The Circular Process for Large Municipal Solid Waste
      3. 23.3. The Preconditions for Sorting Large Municipal Solid Waste
      4. 23.4. Collection System of Large Municipal Solid Waste
      5. 23.5. Sorting of Large Municipal Solid Waste
      6. 23.6. Sorting Installation
      7. 23.7. Sorting Process
      8. 23.8. Recycling Efficiency
      9. 23.9. The Future
    19. Chapter 24. Recovery of Construction and Demolition Wastes
      1. 24.1. Introduction
      2. 24.2. Existing Recycled Aggregate Concrete Applications
      3. 24.3. Existing Concrete Recycling Methods
      4. 24.4. Cost and Benefit Analysis
      5. 24.5. Conclusion
    20. Chapter 25. Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Management
      1. 25.1. Introduction
      2. 25.2. Objectives of WEEE Management
      3. 25.3. WEEE Take-Back Schemes
      4. 25.4. Long-term Trends
    21. Chapter 26. Developments in Collection of Municipal Solid Waste
      1. 26.1. Introduction
      2. 26.2. Definition of Municipal Solid Waste
      3. 26.3. Quantities of Municipal Solid Waste
      4. 26.4. Quality of Municipal Solid Waste
      5. 26.5. Management of Municipal Solid Waste
  8. Part III. Strategy and Policy
    1. Chapter 27. From Recycling to Eco-design
      1. 27.1. Introduction
      2. 27.2. Principle of Material Design for Recycling
      3. 27.3. Eco-design Strategies for Recycling
      4. 27.4. Is Recycling Really Less Impactful on the Environment?
      5. 27.5. Current Limits for Eco-design for Recycling Strategies
      6. 27.6. Market Demand
      7. 27.7. Conclusion
    2. Chapter 28. Recycling and Labeling
      1. 28.1. Introduction
      2. 28.2. Functional Needs Analysis
      3. 28.3. Bibliographical Research on the Polymer Labeling Processes
      4. 28.4. First Results of Detection Tests with Polypropylene Samples
      5. 28.5. Conclusion
    3. Chapter 29. Informal Waste Recycling in Developing Countries
      1. 29.1. Introduction
      2. 29.2. Defining the Informal Sector
      3. 29.3. Informal Solid Waste Management
      4. 29.4. Informal e-Waste Recycling
    4. Chapter 30. Squaring the Circular Economy: The Role of Recycling within a Hierarchy of Material Management Strategies
      1. 30.1. Is a Circular Economy Possible or Desirable?
      2. 30.2. Hierarchies of Material Conservation
      3. 30.3. When is Recycling Not the Answer?
      4. 30.4. Discussion
    5. Chapter 31. The Economics of Recycling
      1. 31.1. Introduction
      2. 31.2. Economic Trends and Drivers
      3. 31.3. Environmental and Social Costs and Benefits
      4. 31.4. Economic Instruments
      5. 31.5. Conclusions and Discussion
    6. Chapter 32. Geopolitics of Resources and Recycling
      1. 32.1. Introduction
      2. 32.2. Resources, Scarcity and Geopolitics
      3. 32.3. Recycling in the Geopolitical Context
    7. Chapter 33. Recycling in Waste Management Policy
      1. 33.1. Introduction
      2. 33.2. A Brief History of Waste Management
      3. 33.3. Integrating Recycling in Waste Management Policy Design
    8. Chapter 34. Voluntary and Negotiated Agreements
      1. 34.1. Introduction
      2. 34.2. Experiences in Recycling Policy
      3. 34.3. Lessons Learned
    9. Chapter 35. Economic Instruments
      1. 35.1. Introduction
      2. 35.2. Criteria to Compare Policy Instruments
      3. 35.3. Basic Environmental Policy Instruments Aimed at Stimulating Recycling
      4. 35.4. Incentives for Upstream Green Product Design
      5. 35.5. Multiproduct and Mixed Waste Streams
      6. 35.6. EPR and Recycling Certificates
      7. 35.7. Durable Goods
      8. 35.8. Imperfect Competition in Product and Recycling Markets
      9. 35.9. Policy Instruments in an International Market for Waste and Materials
      10. 35.10. Recycling and Nonrenewable Resources in a Macro Economic Perspective
      11. 35.11. Conclusion
    10. Chapter 36. Information Instruments
      1. 36.1. Introduction
      2. 36.2. Target Groups/Audience
      3. 36.3. Communication Tools
      4. 36.4. Messaging: Information and Communication
      5. 36.5. Conclusion
    11. Chapter 37. Regulatory Instruments: Sustainable Materials Management, Recycling, and the Law
      1. 37.1. Introduction
      2. 37.2. Resource Efficiency and Waste Strategy—The Blurb
      3. 37.3. The EU Framework Directive on Waste, and Its View on Recovery and Recycling
  9. Appendix 1. Physical Separation 101
  10. Appendix 2. Thermodynamics 101
  11. Appendix 3. Life-Cycle Assessment
  12. Index