When you create a file the system stores all the information you could ever want to know about it, including:
The location of the file;
Who owns it and can access it;
Time last modified; and
The permission bits of the file.
Let’s look at a typical file listing, using the ls -l command:
$ ls -l total 4232 -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 3756 Oct 14 04:44 dmesg -r-xr-xr-x 1 root root 12708 Oct 3 05:40 ps -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 5388 Aug 5 1998 pwd ....
If we go through the output of the first two lines a step at a time, we can break down the information ls -l gives us.
|total 4232||This field tells us how much space the files have taken up in the directory.|
|-rwxr-xr-x||This is the permission bits on the file. If you ...|