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Linux and Unix Shell Programming by David Tansley

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1.2. Types of files

Remember I said to exclude the first dash when looking at the file permissions? Well, here’s what the first dash means. A file can be one of seven types, designated by the first character when you do a ls -l command. The types are as follows:

d This is a directory.
l This is a symbolic link (a pointer to another file).
s This is a domain socket.
b This is a special block file.
c This is a character special file.
p This is a named pipe file.
- This is a normal file or, more accurately, none of the above.

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