10.2. Why Fiber Optical Sensors in Biomechanics?

An FOS system has four basic components: the light source, the optical fiber (OF), the sensor element (which can be intrinsic, that is, the OF itself, or extrinsic, that is, an external OF sensing device), and the light detector (Fig. 10.1).
The light source provides the electromagnetic radiation whose energy is transmitted through the OF to the sensor element, in general, under the principle of total internal reflection. The FOS or optical transducer is the light modulator, i.e., the entity that causes a light property to change (e.g., amplitude or optical power, phase, polarization, and wavelength or optical frequency) under the influence of a certain physical quantity. Thus, a physical quantity ...

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