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Process Plant Layout, 2nd Edition

Book Description

Process Plant Layout, Second Edition, explains the methodologies used by professional designers to layout process equipment and pipework, plots, plants, sites, and their corresponding environmental features in a safe, economical way. It is supported with tables of separation distances, rules of thumb, and codes of practice and standards.

The book includes more than seventy-five case studies on what can go wrong when layout is not properly considered. Sean Moran has thoroughly rewritten and re-illustrated this book to reflect advances in technology and best practices, for example, changes in how designers balance layout density with cost, operability, and safety considerations.

The content covers the ‘why’ underlying process design company guidelines, providing a firm foundation for career growth for process design engineers. It is ideal for process plant designers in contracting, consultancy, and for operating companies at all stages of their careers, and is also of importance for operations and maintenance staff involved with a new build, guiding them through plot plan reviews.

  • Based on interviews with over 200 professional process plant designers
  • Explains multiple plant layout methodologies used by professional process engineers, piping engineers, and process architects
  • Includes advice on how to choose and use the latest CAD tools for plant layout
  • Ensures that all methodologies integrate to comply with worldwide risk management legislation

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Part I: General Principles
    1. Chapter 1. Introduction
      1. Abstract
      2. 1.1 What Kind of a Book Is This?
      3. 1.2 Why a New Book on Layout Design Is Needed
      4. 1.3 What Is New in This Book?
      5. 1.4 How Is the Book Structured?
      6. 1.5 What Is Layout Design?
      7. 1.6 Terminology
      8. 1.7 Stages of Layout Design
      9. 1.8 Hazard Assessment
      10. 1.9 A Note on Calculations and Spacings
      11. Further Reading
    2. Chapter 2. The Discipline of Layout in Context
      1. Abstract
      2. 2.1 General
      3. 2.2 Abbreviations/Legislation and Standards/Terminology
      4. 2.3 The Importance of Layout
      5. 2.4 General Design Considerations in Layout
      6. 2.5 Project Deliverables
      7. 2.6 Layout and the Law
      8. 2.7 Parties to the Design Process
      9. 2.8 Liaison Between Disciplines
      10. 2.9 Liaison Outside the Design Team
      11. 2.10 Relation of Layout to Other Activities
      12. 2.11 Layout and Project Planning Control
    3. Chapter 3. Site Layout Principles
      1. Abstract
      2. 3.1 General
      3. 3.2 Abbreviations/Legislation, Standards and Codes of Practice/Terminology
      4. 3.3 Design Considerations
      5. 3.4 Segregation
      6. 3.5 Emergencies
      7. 3.6 Central Facilities
      8. 3.7 Pollution Abatement
      9. 3.8 Transportation
      10. 3.9 Security
      11. 3.10 Environmental Aspects
      12. 3.11 Geographical Factors
      13. 3.12 Site Selection
      14. Further Reading
    4. Chapter 4. Plot Layout Principles
      1. Abstract
      2. 4.1 General
      3. 4.2 Abbreviations/Standards and Codes/Terminology
      4. 4.3 Process Considerations
      5. 4.4 Economic Considerations
      6. 4.5 Operational Considerations
      7. 4.6 Maintenance Considerations
      8. 4.7 Safety and Emergency Considerations
      9. 4.8 Construction Considerations
      10. 4.9 Appearance
      11. 4.10 Future Expansion
      12. 4.11 Considerations for Solids Handling Plant
      13. 4.12 Plot Buildings
      14. 4.13 Forming Plots
      15. 4.14 Plot Layout Rules of Thumb
      16. Further Reading
    5. Chapter 5. Planning of Layout Activities
      1. Abstract
      2. 5.1 General
      3. 5.2 Abbreviations/Standards and Codes of Practice/Terminology
      4. 5.3 The Project Life Cycle
      5. 5.4 The Organization of Conceptual Design
      6. 5.5 The Organization of Front End Engineering Design
      7. 5.6 The Organization of Detailed Design
      8. 5.7 The Organization of Design for Construction
      9. 5.8 The Organization of Post Construction Design
    6. Chapter 6. Methods for Layout, Conception, and Development
      1. Abstract
      2. 6.1 General
      3. 6.2 Abbreviations/Standards and Codes/Terminology
      4. 6.3 Design Reviews
      5. 6.4 Economic Optimization
      6. 6.5 Rating Classification Methods
      7. 6.6 Mathematical Modeling
      8. 6.7 Software
      9. 6.8 Critical Examination Review
      10. 6.9 Combined Application of Methods: Base Case
    7. Chapter 7. Layout Analogues and Visual Aids
      1. Abstract
      2. 7.1 General
      3. 7.2 Abbreviations/Standards and Codes/Terminology
      4. 7.3 Coordinate Dimensioning
      5. 7.4 Drawings
      6. 7.5 Models
      7. 7.6 Photography
      8. 7.7 Computer Models
    8. Chapter 8. Hazard Assessment of Plant Layout
      1. Abstract
      2. 8.1 General
      3. 8.2 Abbreviations/Standards and Codes/Terminology
      4. 8.3 Relevant Hazards
      5. 8.4 Implications for Layout
      6. 8.5 Appropriate Criteria
      7. 8.6 Hazard Assessment Procedure
      8. 8.7 Hazard Mitigation
      9. 8.8 Minor Leaks and Area Classification
      10. Further Reading
  8. Part II: Detailed Site and Plot Layout
    1. Chapter 9. Transportation
      1. Abstract
      2. 9.1 General
      3. 9.2 Abbreviations/Standards and Codes/Terminology
      4. 9.3 Design Considerations
      5. 9.4 Site Emergencies
      6. 9.5 Storage Location
      7. 9.6 Roads and Parking Areas
      8. 9.7 Rail Tracks
      9. 9.8 Docks and Wharves
      10. 9.9 Case Studies
      11. Further Reading
    2. Chapter 10. Bulk Fluid Storage
      1. Abstract
      2. 10.1 General
      3. 10.2 Abbreviations/Standards and Codes/Terminology
      4. 10.3 Design Considerations
      5. 10.4 Location
      6. 10.5 Tank Size
      7. 10.6 Tank Spacings
      8. 10.7 Bund Areas
      9. 10.8 Bund and Tank Construction
      10. 10.9 Pipes and Pumps
      11. 10.10 Access Within Bunds
      12. 10.11 Loading Areas
      13. 10.12 Outdoor Drum Storage
      14. 10.13 Case Studies
    3. Chapter 11. Bulk Solids Storage
      1. Abstract
      2. 11.1 General
      3. 11.2 Terminology
      4. 11.3 Bulk Solids Intake
      5. 11.4 Open Stockpiles
      6. 11.5 Closed Warehouses
      7. 11.6 Bunker Storage
      8. 11.7 Bulk Solids Outloading Plant
      9. 11.8 Case Studies
      10. Further Reading
    4. Chapter 12. Warehouse Storage
      1. Abstract
      2. 12.1 General
      3. 12.2 Abbreviations/Codes and Standards/Terminology
      4. 12.3 Design Considerations
      5. 12.4 Case Studies
      6. Further Reading
    5. Chapter 13. Pollution Control
      1. Abstract
      2. 13.1 General
      3. 13.2 Abbreviations/Standards and Codes/Terminology
      4. 13.3 Design Considerations
      5. 13.4 Types of Pollution Control Technology
      6. 13.5 Location
      7. 13.6 Spacing
      8. 13.7 Arrangement
      9. 13.8 Support
      10. 13.9 Platforms
      11. 13.10 Maintenance
      12. 13.11 Piping
      13. 13.12 Instrumentation
      14. 13.13 Miscellaneous
      15. 13.14 Case Studies
    6. Chapter 14. Utilities I: General
      1. Abstract
      2. 14.1 General
      3. 14.2 Abbreviations/Codes and Standards/Terminology
      4. 14.3 Design Considerations
      5. 14.4 Types of Utilities
      6. 14.5 Location
      7. 14.6 Maintenance
      8. 14.7 Piping and Cabling
      9. 14.8 Miscellaneous
      10. 14.9 Case Studies
    7. Chapter 15. Utilities II: Water and Steam
      1. Abstract
      2. 15.1 General
      3. 15.2 Abbreviations/Standards and Codes/Terminology
      4. 15.3 Design Considerations
      5. 15.4 Types of Utilities
      6. 15.5 Location
      7. 15.6 Arrangement
      8. 15.7 Support
      9. 15.8 Maintenance
      10. 15.9 Piping
      11. 15.10 Miscellaneous
      12. 15.11 Case Studies
    8. Chapter 16. Central Services
      1. Abstract
      2. 16.1 General
      3. 16.2 Standards and Codes/Terminology
      4. 16.3 Design Considerations
      5. 16.4 Case Studies
      6. Further Reading
    9. Chapter 17. Construction and Layout
      1. Abstract
      2. 17.1 General
      3. 17.2 Abbreviations/Standards and Codes/Terminology
      4. 17.3 Design Considerations
      5. 17.4 Case Studies
      6. Further Reading
    10. Chapter 18. Details of Plot Layout
      1. Abstract
      2. 18.1 General
      3. 18.2 Abbreviations/Standards and Codes/Terminology
      4. 18.3 Choice of Plant Structure
      5. 18.4 Economic Savings
      6. 18.5 Safety Details
      7. 18.6 Operational Requirements
      8. 18.7 Maintenance Requirements
      9. 18.8 Firefighting and Escape
      10. 18.9 Appearance
      11. 18.10 Control Room
      12. 18.11 Other Personnel Buildings
      13. 18.12 Case Studies
      14. Further Reading
    11. Chapter 19. Layout Within Buildings
      1. Abstract
      2. 19.1 General
      3. 19.2 Abbreviations/Standards and Codes/Terminology
      4. 19.3 Optimum Equipment Arrangements
      5. 19.4 Operational and Emergency Arrangements
      6. 19.5 Piping and Cabling
      7. 19.6 Ducting and Headroom
      8. 19.7 Maintenance
      9. 19.8 Planning Pipes, Ducts, and Equipment Removal
      10. 19.9 Safety in Buildings
      11. 19.10 Illumination and Appearance
      12. 19.11 Case Studies
      13. Further Reading
  9. Part III: Detailed Layout of Equipment
    1. Chapter 20. Tanks and Drums
      1. Abstract
      2. 20.1 General
      3. 20.2 Abbreviations/Standards and Codes/Terminology
      4. 20.3 Types of Vessel
      5. 20.4 Spacing
      6. 20.5 Arrangement
      7. 20.6 Support
      8. 20.7 Platforms
      9. 20.8 Maintenance
      10. 20.9 Piping
      11. 20.10 Nozzles
      12. 20.11 Instrumentation
      13. 20.12 Case Studies
      14. Further Reading
    2. Chapter 21. Furnaces and Fired Equipment
      1. Abstract
      2. 21.1 General
      3. 21.2 Abbreviations/Standards and Codes/Terminology
      4. 21.3 Design Considerations
      5. 21.4 Types of Fired Equipment
      6. 21.5 Location
      7. 21.6 Spacing
      8. 21.7 Arrangement
      9. 21.8 Support
      10. 21.9 Platforms
      11. 21.10 Maintenance
      12. 21.11 Piping
      13. 21.12 Nozzles
      14. 21.13 Instrumentation
      15. 21.14 Miscellaneous
      16. 21.15 Case Studies
      17. Further Reading
    3. Chapter 22. Distillation Columns and Towers
      1. Abstract
      2. 22.1 General
      3. 22.2 Abbreviations/Standards and Codes/Terminology
      4. 22.3 Design Considerations
      5. 22.4 Types of Towers
      6. 22.5 Location
      7. 22.6 Spacing
      8. 22.7 Arrangement
      9. 22.8 Support
      10. 22.9 Platforms
      11. 22.10 Maintenance
      12. 22.11 Piping
      13. 22.12 Nozzles
      14. 22.13 Instrumentation
      15. 22.14 Miscellaneous
      16. 22.15 Case Studies
      17. Further Reading
    4. Chapter 23. Heat Exchangers
      1. Abstract
      2. 23.1 General
      3. 23.2 Abbreviations/Standards and Codes/Terminology
      4. 23.3 Design Considerations
      5. 23.4 Types of Exchangers
      6. 23.5 Location
      7. 23.6 Spacing
      8. 23.7 Arrangement
      9. 23.8 Support
      10. 23.9 Platforms
      11. 23.10 Maintenance
      12. 23.11 Piping
      13. 23.12 Nozzles
      14. 23.13 Instrumentation
      15. 23.14 Case Studies
      16. Further Reading
    5. Chapter 24. Reactors
      1. Abstract
      2. 24.1 General
      3. 24.2 Abbreviations/Standards and Codes/Terminology
      4. 24.3 Design Considerations
      5. 24.4 Types of Reactor
      6. 24.5 Location
      7. 24.6 Arrangement
      8. 24.7 Support
      9. 24.8 Platforms
      10. 24.9 Maintenance
      11. 24.10 Piping
      12. 24.11 Nozzles
      13. 24.12 Instrumentation
      14. 24.13 Miscellaneous
      15. 24.14 Case Studies
      16. Further Reading
    6. Chapter 25. Mixers
      1. Abstract
      2. 25.1 General
      3. 25.2 Design Considerations
      4. 25.3 Types of Mixer
      5. 25.4 Spacing
      6. 25.5 Arrangement
      7. 25.6 Support
      8. 25.7 Maintenance
      9. 25.8 Piping
      10. 25.9 Instrumentation
      11. 25.10 Case Studies
      12. Further Reading
    7. Chapter 26. Filters
      1. Abstract
      2. 26.1 General
      3. 26.2 Design Considerations
      4. 26.3 Types of Filters
      5. 26.4 Location
      6. 26.5 Spacing
      7. 26.6 Arrangement
      8. 26.7 Platforms
      9. 26.8 Maintenance
      10. 26.9 Piping
      11. 26.10 Nozzles
      12. 26.11 Instrumentation
      13. 26.12 Miscellaneous
      14. 26.13 Case Studies
    8. Chapter 27. Centrifuges
      1. Abstract
      2. 27.1 General
      3. 27.2 Standards and Codes/Terminology
      4. 27.3 Design Considerations
      5. 27.4 Types of Centrifuge
      6. 27.5 Location
      7. 27.6 Spacing
      8. 27.7 Arrangement
      9. 27.8 Support
      10. 27.9 Platforms
      11. 27.10 Maintenance
      12. 27.11 Piping
      13. 27.12 Instrumentation
      14. 27.13 Miscellaneous
      15. 27.14 Case Studies
      16. Further Reading
    9. Chapter 28. Solids Handling Plant
      1. Abstract
      2. 28.1 General
      3. 28.2 Abbreviations/Standards and Codes/Terminology
      4. 28.3 Types of Solids Handling Equipment
      5. 28.4 Location
      6. 28.5 Spacing
      7. 28.6 Arrangement
      8. 28.7 Support
      9. 28.8 Maintenance
      10. 28.9 Miscellaneous
      11. 28.10 Case Studies
      12. Further Reading
    10. Chapter 29. Dryers
      1. Abstract
      2. 29.1 General
      3. 29.2 Abbreviations/Standards and Codes/Terminology
      4. 29.3 Design Considerations
      5. 29.4 Types of Dryer
      6. 29.5 Location
      7. 29.6 Spacing
      8. 29.7 Arrangement
      9. 29.8 Support
      10. 29.9 Platforms
      11. 29.10 Maintenance
      12. 29.11 Instrumentation
      13. 29.12 Miscellaneous
      14. 29.13 Case Studies
      15. Further Reading
    11. Chapter 30. Filling and Packaging
      1. Abstract
      2. 30.1 General
      3. 30.2 Abbreviations/Standards and Codes/Terminology
      4. 30.3 Design Considerations
      5. 30.4 Case Studies
  10. Part IV: Detailed Layout: Materials Transfer Systems
    1. Chapter 31. Pumps
      1. Abstract
      2. 31.1 General
      3. 31.2 Abbreviations/Standards and Codes/Terminology
      4. 31.3 Design Considerations
      5. 31.4 Types of Pumps
      6. 31.5 Location
      7. 31.6 Spacing
      8. 31.7 Arrangement
      9. 31.8 Support
      10. 31.9 Maintenance
      11. 31.10 Piping
      12. 31.11 Nozzles
      13. 31.12 Instrumentation
      14. 31.13 Case Studies
      15. Further Reading
    2. Chapter 32. Compressors
      1. Abstract
      2. 32.1 General
      3. 32.2 Abbreviation/Standards and Codes/Terminology
      4. 32.3 Design Considerations
      5. 32.4 Types of Compressors
      6. 32.5 Location
      7. 32.6 Spacing
      8. 32.7 Arrangement
      9. 32.8 Support
      10. 32.9 Maintenance
      11. 32.10 Piping
      12. 32.11 Case Studies
      13. Further Reading
    3. Chapter 33. Conveyors
      1. Abstract
      2. 33.1 General
      3. 33.2 Standards and Codes
      4. 33.3 Design Considerations
      5. 33.4 Types of Conveyor
      6. 33.5 Support
      7. 33.6 Maintenance
      8. 33.7 Piping
      9. 33.8 Case Studies
      10. Further Reading
    4. Chapter 34. Piping
      1. Abstract
      2. 34.1 General
      3. 34.2 Abbreviations/Standards and Codes/Terminology
      4. 34.3 Design Considerations
      5. 34.4 Piping Layout Considerations
      6. 34.5 Use of Piperacks
      7. 34.6 Plot Piping
      8. 34.7 Utility Systems
      9. 34.8 Valves and Bleed Points
      10. 34.9 Testing and Inspection
      11. 34.10 Case Studies
      12. Further Reading
  11. Part V: Detailed Layout: Other
    1. Chapter 35. Pipe Stress Analysis
      1. Abstract
      2. 35.1 General
      3. 35.2 Abbreviations, Standards, and Codes
      4. 35.3 Design Considerations
      5. 35.4 Analysis Methods
      6. 35.5 Case Studies
      7. Further Reading
    2. Chapter 36. Instrumentation
      1. Abstract
      2. 36.1 General
      3. 36.2 Abbreviations/Standards and Codes/Terminology
      4. 36.3 Design Considerations
      5. 36.4 Types of Instrument
      6. 36.5 Location
      7. 36.6 Spacing
      8. 36.7 Arrangement
      9. 36.8 Support
      10. 36.9 Platforms
      11. 36.10 Maintenance
      12. 36.11 Piping
      13. 36.12 Nozzles
      14. 36.13 Instrumentation
      15. 36.14 Case Studies
      16. Further Reading
  12. Part VI: Appendices
    1. Appendix A. CAD
      1. A.1 General
      2. A.2 General Implications of Modern Design Tools
      3. A.3 Project Management/Programming Tools
      4. A.4 2D Computer-Aided Drawing/Drafting (CAD)
      5. A.5 3D CAD
      6. A.6 Model Review Software
      7. A.7 BIMM
      8. A.8 Geographical Information Systems
      9. A.9 Hazard Analysis
      10. A.10 Pipe Stress Analysis
    2. Appendix B. Hazard Assessment Calculations
      1. B.1 Introduction
      2. B.2 Instantaneous Release of Gas or Vapor
      3. B.3 Steady Leak of Gas or Vapor
      4. B.4 Loss of Liquid
      5. B.5 Fire Damage and Protection
      6. B.6 Implications for Layout
      7. B.7 Further Notes on Blast Effects
      8. B.8 Area Classification Zone Sizes
      9. B.9 Data
      10. B.10 Notation
      11. Further Reading
    3. Appendix C. Plant Separation Tables
      1. C.1 Introduction
      2. C.2 Preliminary Spacings for Tank Farm Layout
      3. C.3 Preliminary Electrical Area Classification Distances
      4. C.4 Size of Storage Piles
      5. C.5 API and NFPA Recommendations
      6. C.6 Health and Safety Executive Recommendations (HSG 176: Storage of Flammable Liquids in Tanks)
    4. Appendix D. Variations on the Methodology
      1. D.1 General
      2. D.2 Alternative Approach 1: The Piping Engineer’s Methodology
      3. D.3 Alternative Approach 2: The CCPS Guidelines for Facility Selection and Layout
      4. D.4 Alternative Approach 3: Madden Method 1: Plant and Equipment Layout
      5. D.5 Alternative Approach 4: Madden Method 2: Piping Layout
      6. D.6 Alternative Approach 5: Madden Method 3: Layout Within Buildings
      7. D.7 Alternative Approach 6: Mecklenburgh’s “Manual Formalized Methods”
      8. D.8 Alternative Approach 7: Modified Mecklenburgh: General Plant Layout Method
      9. D.9 Alternative Approach 8: Oil and Gas Industry Practice
      10. D.10 Alternative Approach 9: The Process Architect’s Approach
    5. Appendix E. Masterplanning
      1. E.1 Introduction
      2. E.2 Formats and Systems
      3. E.3 Study Process
      4. E.4 Masterplan Development and Content
      5. E.5 Masterplanning/Plant Design Overlap
    6. Appendix F. Conversion Factors for Older and “British” Units
    7. Appendix G. Consolidated Glossary
      1. G.1 Abbreviations
      2. G.2 Glossary
    8. Appendix H. Consolidated Codes and Standards
      1. H.1 Introduction
      2. H.2 International Codes and Standards
      3. H.3 European Law and Standards
      4. H.4 British Codes and Standards
      5. H.5 US Codes and Standards
      6. H.6 Other National Codes and Standards
      7. Further Reading
  13. Index