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Producing and Directing the Short Film and Video, 5th Edition

Book Description

Producing and Directing the Short Film and Video, Fifth Edition is the definitive book on the subject for the serious film student or beginning filmmaker. Its unique two-fold approach looks at filmmaking from the perspectives of both the producer and director, and clearly explains how their separate roles must work together to create a successful short film or video. Through extensive examples from award-winning shorts and insightful interviews, you will learn about common challenges the filmmakers encountered during each step of filmmaking process—from preproduction to production, postproduction, and distribution—and the techniques they used to overcome them.

In celebrating this book’s twentieth anniversary, this edition has been updated to include:

    • Two all-new, in-depth cases studies of esteemed short films—Memory Lane and the Academy Award-winning God of Love
    • A revised chapter progression that reinforces the significance of the actor - director relationship
    • Interviews with the filmmakers integrated alongside the text, as well as new images and behind-the-scenes coverage of production processes
    • Revamped sections on current financing strategies, postproduction workflows, and the wide variety of distribution platforms now available to filmmakers
    • A "Where are They Now" appendix featuring updates on the original filmmakers covered in the first edition
    • An expanded companion website (www.focalpress.com/cw/rea) containing useful forms and information on distributors, grants and financing sources, film and video festivals, film schools, internet sources for short works, and professional associations

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Table of Contents
  6. Preface: Fifth Edition
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. Introduction
    1. Internet
    2. Craft versus Art and Collaboration
    3. What Are the Steps?
    4. The Organization of the Book
    5. Producer and Director
      1. The Producer
      2. The Director
    6. Six Short Films
    7. The Filmmakers Speak
    8. Chapter Breakdowns
    9. Companion Web Site
  9. Timeline
  10. part I Preproduction
    1. 1 Script
      1. THE CREATIVE PRODUCER
      2. Developing the Script
      3. Animation
      4. Do Your Homework
      5. What Is a Script?
        1. What Does a Script Look Like?
        2. Where Do Scripts Come From?
        3. How Are Scripts Developed?
      6. Workshop Your Idea
      7. Basic Guidelines for the Short Form
        1. Length
        2. The Central Theme
        3. Conflict
        4. The Basic Conflicts
        5. The Dramatic Arc or Spine
        6. One Primary Event
        7. One Major Character
        8. Follow-Through
        9. Minimum Back Story
        10. Internal Motives, External Action
        11. No Talking Heads
        12. Images before Words
      8. Adaptation
        1. Why Adapt?
        2. Rights
        3. What Is the Story About?
        4. Find Your Plot and Characters
        5. Make the Internal External
        6. Dramatic Expectations
        7. What Do You Do Now?
        8. General Guidelines for Adaptation
      9. True Stories and Events
      10. Legalities
        1. Rights and Adaptations (Preexisting Material)
        2. Noncommercial/Festival Rights
        3. Original Material
        4. Copyright
      11. Collaboration
        1. Working with a Writer
        2. Rewriting
      12. How Do Scripts Affect Budgets?
      13. DIRECTOR
      14. Supervising or Performing Rewrites
      15. Working with the Writer
      16. Director as Storyteller
        1. Readings
        2. Story Questions
        3. Scene Analysis
        4. The Shooting Script
        5. Documentaries
      17. Developing a Web Presence
        1. Selecting a Web Master
        2. Designing the Interface
      18. KEY POINTS
    2. 2 Finance
      1. PRODUCER
      2. Raising the Capital
      3. Basic Fundraising Problems
        1. How Much Money Will You Need?
      4. Funding Options
        1. Private Investors
        2. Fiscal Sponsorship
        3. Private Foundation Grants
        4. Public Foundation Grants
        5. Corporate Sponsorship
        6. Bank Loans
        7. Personal Savings
        8. In-Kind Services and Donations
        9. Do Your Research
      5. The Prospectus
        1. Presentation Is Everything
        2. Spending the Money Responsibly
        3. The Digital Prospectus
        4. General Fundraising Suggestions
        5. Student Fundraising Strategies
        6. Sources for Students
      6. DIRECTOR
      7. Pitching the Project
      8. The Elevator Challenge
      9. Steps to a Successful Pitch
      10. KEY POINTS
    3. 3 Breakdowns
      1. PRODUCER
      2. Breaking Down the Script
      3. Production Book
      4. Proper Script Format
      5. Breaking Down the Script
        1. Step 1: Breakdowns
        2. Step 2: Schedule
        3. Step 3: Budget
      6. The Digital Producer
      7. DIRECTOR
      8. Developing a Shooting Plan
        1. Organization Leads to Flexibility
      9. Director Breakdowns
        1. Know the Script
        2. Know the Theme
        3. Develop a History for the Main Characters
        4. Know What Each Character Wants in the Story
        5. Break Down Each Scene into Dramatic Beats
        6. Determine a Visual Style for the Story
        7. Study the Locations and Rehearse the Actors
        8. Settle on Pacing and Tone
        9. Workshop Ideas on Video
        10. Create Floor Plans and Storyboards
        11. Make a Shot List
        12. Animation
      10. The Final Word
      11. KEY POINTS
    4. 4 Schedule
      1. PRODUCER (AS PRODUCTION MANAGER)
      2. Building a Stripboard
      3. General Guidelines
      4. Fixed Dates
        1. Locations
        2. Cast
        3. Exteriors
        4. Night Shooting
        5. Continuity of Sequences
        6. Shooting Out
        7. Child Actors
        8. Time of Year
        9. Weather
        10. Special Effects, Stunts, and Animals
        11. Crowd Sequences
        12. Special Equipment
        13. Turnaround, Setup Time, and Swing Crews
        14. Animation
        15. Other Considerations
      5. Beginning the Schedule
      6. Creating the Schedule
      7. The First Day
      8. Making the Day
        1. Keep the Day under 12 Hours!
      9. Shooting during Preproduction
        1. Animation Lip-Sync
      10. Locking the Schedule
      11. Call Sheet
      12. Scheduling Documentaries
      13. Student Scheduling Tips
      14. Web Presence for the Project
      15. DIRECTOR
      16. Determining the Visual Plan
      17. Coverage = Time = Schedule = Budget
      18. Contingency Plans for Overages
      19. Things Change
      20. KEY POINTS
    5. 5 Budget
      1. DIRECTOR
      2. Shooting for the Moon
      3. PRODUCER
      4. Creating a Budget
      5. Script and Budget
      6. Who Creates the Budget?
        1. Budgeting Software
        2. Production Value
      7. The Budget Form
      8. Above-the-Line Costs
        1. 001 Script and Rights
        2. 002 Producer/003 Director
        3. 004 Cast
      9. Below-the-Line Costs
        1. Basic Decisions
        2. 005 Production
        3. 006 Crew
        4. 007 Equipment
        5. 008 Art
        6. 009 Location
        7. 010 Film and Lab
      10. Postproduction
        1. 011 Editing
        2. 012 Sound
        3. 013 Lab
      11. Postproduction Finish Digital
        1. 014 Office Expenses
        2. 015 Insurance
        3. 016 Contingency
        4. Petty Cash
      12. Beginning the Budget
      13. The Budget Process
      14. Information Is Power
      15. Learn by Doing
      16. Student Budgets
      17. KEY POINTS
    6. 6 Crew
      1. DIRECTOR
      2. Choosing the Crew
      3. PRODUCER
      4. Hiring the Crew
      5. Who Hires the Crew?
      6. When Do You Need a Crew?
      7. How Big a Crew Do You Need?
        1. The 3–30 Rule
      8. Selecting the Crew
        1. Attracting the Right People
        2. Evaluating Credits
        3. Negotiating the Deal
      9. Key Crew Members
        1. Production Manager
        2. Director of Photography
        3. The Digital Assistant
        4. Art Director (Production Designer)
        5. Assistant Director
        6. Production Sound Mixer
        7. The Digital Imaging Technician
        8. Specialty Crew
        9. Production Assistant
        10. Interns
        11. Documentary Crews
        12. Hiring an Animator
      10. Developing the Right Chemistry
      11. KEY POINTS
    7. 7 Actors
      1. Casting
      2. PRODUCER
      3. The Casting Process
      4. Casting Director
      5. The Basic Casting Steps
        1. Advertise Specific Roles
        2. Scout Local Theater Companies
        3. Scout Acting Schools
        4. Contact State Film Commissions
        5. Organize Submitted Head Shots and Résumés
        6. Arrange Casting Calls
        7. Reader
        8. Arrange Callbacks
        9. Negotiate with Selected Actors
        10. Contracts and Deal Memos
        11. Deal with Rejected Actors
      6. Added Benefits of Casting
      7. DIRECTOR
      8. Auditions
      9. Types of Auditions
      10. Audition Guidelines
        1. Before the Audition
        2. Beginning the Audition
        3. The Reading
        4. Evaluating the Audition
        5. Video Operators
        6. Callbacks
        7. Casting Children
        8. Happy Accidents
        9. Points to Keep in Mind
      11. Casting the Documentary
      12. PRODUCER
      13. Rehearsal Schedule
      14. DIRECTOR
      15. Rehearsals
        1. The Goals of Rehearsal
        2. Before Rehearsals
        3. Developing Mutual Trust
        4. Researching the Character
        5. Character Arc
        6. First Read-Through
        7. Develop the Theme
        8. Second Read-Through
        9. Keep Notes
        10. Scene by Scene
        11. Staging the Scene
        12. Record the Rehearsals
        13. Discovering Beats
        14. Subtext
        15. Pace
        16. Improvisation
      16. Special Situations
      17. Rehearsing with Children
      18. Communicating on the Set
      19. Interviews
      20. KEY POINTS
    8. 8 Location
      1. DIRECTOR
      2. Scouting Locations
      3. Aesthetic Concerns versus Practical Limitations
      4. Be Flexible
      5. The Power of Illusion
      6. Identifying the Location
        1. Interior or Exterior
        2. Day or Night
        3. Stage or Practical Location
        4. Near or Distant
      7. Walk-Throughs
      8. PRODUCER
      9. Securing Locations
      10. Where to Look for Locations
      11. Scouting the Locations
        1. Lighting
        2. Power
        3. Sound
        4. Green Room and Other Special Areas
        5. Safety and Security
        6. Proximity
        7. Backups
      12. Securing the Location
        1. Location Contract
        2. Location Fee
        3. Permits
        4. Insurance
        5. Communication
        6. Transportation
        7. Parking
        8. Company Moves
        9. Catering
      13. KEY POINTS
    9. 9 Art Direction
      1. DIRECTOR
      2. Production Design
        1. Some History
      3. Architect of Illusion
      4. Creating a Look
      5. How to Define the “Look”
      6. Defining the Space with Visual Ideas
      7. Communication with the Director of Photography
      8. Basic Decisions
        1. Locations or Sets
        2. Format
        3. Black and White versus Color
      9. Breakdowns: Listen to the Script
      10. Camera Tests
      11. PRODUCER
      12. Assembling the Team
      13. The Art Department
      14. Images Can Tell a Story
      15. Responsibilities of the Art Department
        1. Stages and Locations
        2. What Does the Script Require?
        3. Set Dressing
        4. Duplicate Set Items
        5. Props
        6. Duplicate Props
        7. Weapons
        8. Food
        9. Wardrobe
        10. Consulting the Actors
        11. Specialty Garb
        12. Duplicate Costumes
        13. Consulting the Director of Photography
        14. Continuity and Script Time
        15. Makeup
        16. Special Effects Makeup
        17. Hair
      16. Animation
      17. The Producer’s Role
      18. Final Walk-Through
      19. KEY POINTS
    10. 10 Camera
      1. DIRECTOR
      2. Collaborate
      3. Keeping Up with Technology
      4. Do Your Homework
      5. Style
      6. Listen to the Material
      7. Documentary
      8. Introduce the Camera during Preproduction
      9. Consult with the Director of Photography
      10. Responsibilities of the Director of Photography
        1. In Preproduction
        2. In Production
        3. Postproduction
        4. Camera—Lighting Team
        5. Basic Decisions
      11. Film Stock
        1. Tape—Tapeless
        2. Film vs. Video Dynamic Range
        3. Use of Color or Black and White
        4. How Can Color Be Controlled?
        5. Tests
      12. The Camera as Storyteller
      13. Coverage = Shot List
      14. Type of Shot (Traditional Coverage)
        1. Staging for the Camera
        2. The Frame
        3. Composition
        4. Depth
        5. Drawing the Viewer’s Eye
        6. Extending the Frame
        7. Focus
      15. The Shot
        1. The Lens
        2. The Shot Size
        3. Shot Perspectives
        4. Point-of-View Shot
        5. The Reveal
        6. The Fourth Wall
      16. Camera Movement
        1. Find the Balance
        2. One Long Take
        3. Creating Camera Movement
      17. Shoot with Editing in Mind
        1. Continuity
        2. Overlapping Action
        3. The 180° Rule
        4. Crossing the Line
        5. Screen Direction in Movement
        6. Montage
        7. Documentaries
        8. Keeping Track
        9. Second Unit
        10. Specialty Shots
        11. Green Screen
        12. Integrating Animation
      18. Lighting Style
        1. Lighting Basics
        2. Lighting for Exteriors
        3. Lighting for Interiors
        4. Lighting with Practicals
        5. Lighting for Documentaries
        6. Lighting for HD
        7. Do It in the Camera or Do It in Post?
      19. Broadcast Quality
      20. Tricks
        1. Poor Man’s Process
        2. Simple Mattes (for Film Shoots)
        3. Night for Day
      21. Film
        1. Equipment
        2. Film Camera
        3. Film Formats
        4. Aspect Ratio
        5. Camera Terms
        6. Lighting Package
      22. Other Equipment
        1. Grip Package
      23. Technical Considerations
        1. Power
        2. Fans
      24. Video
        1. Video Camera
        2. Camcorder
        3. The Waveform Monitor and Vectorscope
        4. The Monitor
      25. The Video Format
      26. Frame and Sensor Size
      27. Progressive and Interlace Scanning
      28. Interlace Factor
      29. The Frame Rate
      30. George Lucas and 24p
      31. How Color Is Recorded
        1. Color Systems
        2. Color Sampling
      32. What Do You Call a Format?
      33. The Evolution of Video Formats
        1. Standard Definition Analog Formats
        2. Standard Definition Digital Formats
        3. High Definition Digital Formats
      34. Digital Cinema Formats
      35. PRODUCER
      36. Support
        1. Laboratory (If Shooting Film)
        2. Rental House
      37. KEY POINTS
    11. 11 Sound
      1. DIRECTOR
      2. Recording Clean Tracks
      3. Why Getting Good Sound Is So Important
      4. The Sound Team
        1. Production Sound Mixer
        2. Boom Operator
        3. Utility Sound Technician
      5. The Equipment
        1. Microphones
      6. Preproduction Planning
        1. Site Visit
      7. Responsibilities of the Sound Team
        1. Dialogue
        2. Perspective
        3. Consistency in Sound Recording
        4. Room Tone
        5. Sound Effects
        6. Additional Sounds
        7. Playback/Music Video
        8. Communication on the Set
        9. Sound Report
      8. Approaches to Recording Sound
        1. Boom
        2. Overhead Boom
        3. Plants/Stash
        4. Lavalier
        5. Wireless Microphone
      9. Variables for Placing Microphones
      10. Recording Concerns
        1. Pickups
        2. Keeping It Clean
        3. Guide Tracks
        4. Crowd Scenes
      11. Digital Video Sound
        1. Documentary
      12. Additional Sound Information on the Web Site
      13. PRODUCER
      14. Controlling the Environment
      15. Equipment Needs for the Shoot
      16. How Big a Sound Package and Crew Do You Need?
      17. Low to High Budget
      18. KEY POINTS
  11. part II Production
    1. 12 On Set
      1. Art on Set
      2. Final Walk-Through
      3. Set Procedures
        1. The Day of the Shoot
        2. Set Dressing
        3. Props
        4. Wardrobe
        5. Makeup
        6. Hair
        7. Additional Crew
      4. DIRECTOR ON SET
      5. Inspires
      6. Directing Actors
      7. The Director as Audience
      8. Acting Styles
        1. Comedy
        2. Understatement
      9. Types of Characters
        1. Primary Characters
        2. Secondary Characters
        3. Background Characters
        4. Untrained Actors
        5. Special Situations
      10. Staging for Camera
        1. Eye-Line
        2. Technical Requirements for the Actor
        3. Lenses
        4. Hitting Marks
        5. Apple Boxes
        6. Video Tap
      11. Digital Assistant
      12. Dailies
      13. Tips for Directing
        1. Interviewing for Documentaries
        2. Interview Questions
        3. Director’s Disease
      14. PRODUCER ON SET
        1. Accommodating Actors
        2. Socializing
      15. Guidelines
        1. Act as Coordinator
        2. Support the Director and the Creative Team
        3. Watch the Budget
        4. Keep Morale Up
        5. Be a Troubleshooter
        6. Keep the Production Moving Ahead
        7. Proper Wrap Out
      16. Keeping Track of the Art Department
      17. Cover Sets
      18. Wrapping Up
      19. Set Protocols
        1. Organized Chaos
      20. Set Etiquette
      21. The Process
        1. Call Time
        2. On Call
        3. Stand-Ins
        4. Makeup and Hair
        5. Final Staging
      22. A Typical Day
      23. Camera Moves
        1. Shot Procedure
      24. Script Supervision
      25. Continuity
        1. Overlapping Action
      26. Slates
        1. Slating Procedure
      27. Action! Cut!
        1. Calling the Shot
      28. KEY POINTS
      29. Art
      30. Director
  12. part III Postproduction
    1. 13 Pix Postproduction
      1. DIRECTOR
      2. The “Final Draft”
      3. The Director as Editor
      4. The Editor
        1. The Editor Speaks
        2. The Documentary Editor
        3. The Editing Process
        4. What Is Editing?
      5. Screening the Dailies (Working with an Editor)
      6. Shaping the Story
        1. The Assembly
        2. The Rough Cut
        3. Analyzing the Rough Cut
      7. Screening for Story
        1. Screening for Pacing
        2. Electronic Feedback
        3. Restructuring the Picture
        4. Screening the Second Cut
      8. Refining the Story
        1. Editing Techniques
        2. Speed Is Not Everything
        3. Evolution of the Edit
        4. Shifts in Tone
        5. Pace Is Everything
        6. Be Ruthless
        7. Locking the Picture
      9. Delivering to the Sound Designer/Sound Effects Editor
      10. Digital Basics
        1. Key Terms
        2. SMPTE Timecode
        3. Drop and Nondrop Frame Timecode
        4. Analog versus Digital
        5. Sampling Rate
        6. Resolution
      11. Digital Compression
        1. Compression Methods
      12. Working with Digital Data
        1. Digital Connections
        2. Hard Drive Storage
        3. File Formats and Data Exchanges
      13. Basic Workflow of a Nonlinear Editing System
        1. Basic Nonlinear Interface
        2. Basic Terms
        3. Storage
        4. Monitors
        5. Capturing and Organizing Clips
        6. Digitizing
        7. Setting Color and Audio
        8. Organizing Clips
      14. Editing Sequences
        1. Editing Interface and Time Line
        2. Its Only Virtual—Back up Please!
        3. Marking and Assembling Clips
        4. Adding Clips
        5. Removing Clips from a Sequence
        6. Trimming Clips
        7. Basic Sound Editing
      15. Special Digital Video Effects
        1. Types of Effects
        2. Creating Titles
        3. Performing Real-Time versus Rendered Effects
        4. Working with Third-Party Graphics Applications
        5. Film Match-Back Issues
        6. Ending a Session
      16. Animation
        1. Computer-Generated Images (CGI)
      17. Technical Considerations When Editing Film on Video
        1. Telecine
        2. The 29.97 Complication
        3. Video Dailies
      18. PRODUCER
      19. Advise
      20. What You Want from a System?
      21. Editing Room
      22. Postproduction Schedule
        1. The HD Workflow
      23. Finding an Editor
        1. Evaluating Prospective Editors
      24. The Editor Speaks
      25. Stepping Back and Looking Ahead
      26. KEY POINTS
    2. 14 Sound Postproduction
      1. DIRECTOR
      2. Sound Design
        1. Some History
        2. What Is Sound Design?
        3. Respect for Sound
        4. How We Perceive Sound Versus Picture
        5. Sound Equals Space
        6. Sound Expands the Frame
        7. What Is a Soundtrack?
        8. The Design of Sound
        9. Do You Need a Sound Designer?
        10. Post Flow Options
        11. Projects Shot on Digital Video
        12. Projects Shot on Film
        13. The Digital Audio Workstation
      3. Creating the Soundtrack
        1. The Workflow
        2. Spotting
        3. Dialogue Tracks
        4. Editing Dialogue
        5. Automatic Dialogue Replacement (ADR)
        6. ADR Spotting
        7. Walla
        8. Voice-Overs and Narration
      4. Refining the Narration
      5. Sound Effects Tracks
        1. Unique or Enhanced Sounds
        2. Music Tracks
        3. Function
      6. The Impact of Music
        1. The Music Team
        2. The Original Score
        3. Music Spotting
        4. The Music Editor
        5. Working with a Composer
        6. Preexisting Music
        7. The Mix
      7. Different Formats
        1. Music Tips for Students and Beginners
      8. PRODUCER
      9. Supervising Postproduction
      10. … And Distributors
      11. The Moral
      12. KEY POINTS
    3. 15 Finishing/Online/Laboratory
      1. PRODUCER
      2. Keeping Track
      3. DIRECTOR
      4. The Finished Look
      5. Nonlinear Online Edit
      6. Color Correction
        1. Basic Workflows
        2. Film-to-Film Workflow
      7. Opticals
        1. Timing
        2. Cutting the Negative
        3. Optical Track
      8. Types of Prints
        1. Mute Print
        2. First Trial
        3. Answer Print
        4. Release Print
      9. Film—Digital—Film Workflow
        1. Film Cut Lists
        2. 24/30 Frame Issues
        3. Digital Intermediate
        4. DI—Finish in Film
      10. Video-to-Film Transfer
        1. Systems
      11. The Digital-to-Digital Workflow
        1. Offine/Online
        2. Online Workflow
        3. Offine/Online Workflow
        4. Animation and CGI: Rendering and Compositing
        5. Finishing and Output
      12. THE PRODUCER
      13. Looking Ahead/Key Points
    4. 16 Distribution/Exhibition
      1. PRODUCER
      2. Launching the Film
      3. Start Early: Have a Plan from the Beginning
      4. Your Web Presence
      5. The Markets
        1. Exhibition
        2. YouTube
        3. iTunes
        4. Online Distribution Sites
        5. DVD
        6. Television
        7. Theatrical Markets
        8. Foreign Markets
        9. Nontheatrical Markets
        10. Educational Market
        11. Institutional Market
      6. Distribution Options
        1. Self-Distribution
        2. Distributor
      7. DIRECTOR
      8. Publicity
        1. Citizen
        2. The Lunch Date
        3. Crazy Glue
        4. Mirror Mirror
      9. The Academy Awards
  13. Appendix A Script Sample
    1. Memory Lane
  14. Appendix B Safety Issues
    1. Length of a Shoot Day
      1. All in a Day’s Work
      2. On the Road: What You Can Do When You’re Tired
    2. General Safety Guidelines
      1. Attire
      2. Special Effects
      3. Chemicals and Flammable Materials
      4. Set Construction
      5. Lighting and Electric
      6. Grip/Rigging
      7. Lifting and Moving Heavy Objects
      8. Ladders and Scaffolds
      9. Dollies
      10. Grip Trucks
    3. Stunts, Prop Weapons, and Pyrotechnics
      1. Fire and Pyrotechnics
      2. Guns, Knives, and Other Prop Weapons
      3. Physical Stunts
      4. Filming Stunts in Public
      5. Special Effects
      6. Motor Vehicles
      7. Water Scenes
      8. Additional Safety Considerations
    4. Light Safely
      1. Do You Know What to Look Out For?
      2. Electrical Tie-Ins
      3. Location Scout
      4. Blowing a Fuse
      5. Using Gels
      6. Set Etiquette
      7. Changing Bulbs
      8. Additional Concerns
    5. Safety in the Studio
      1. Lighting Grid
      2. Sets and Flats
    6. Shooting in Extreme Weather Conditions
      1. Extreme Cold
      2. Extreme Heat
      3. Inclement Weather
    7. Using Animals in Film
  15. Appendix C Music Clearance and Insurance
    1. Music Rights
      1. Public Domain and Fair Use
      2. The Process of Licensing Music
    2. Insurance
      1. Comprehensive Liability
      2. Miscellaneous Equipment
      3. Third-Party Property Damage Liability
      4. Errors and Omissions
      5. Cast Insurance
      6. Negative Film and Digital Videotape
      7. Faulty Stock, Camera, and Processing
      8. Props, Sets, and Wardrobe
      9. Extra Expense
      10. Workers’ Compensation
      11. Hired, Loaned, or Donated Auto Liability
      12. Hired, Loaned, or Donated Auto Physical Damage
      13. Guild/Union Travel Accident
      14. Office Contents
      15. Animal Mortality
  16. Appendix D A Short History of the Short Film
  17. Appendix E Genres
    1. Animation
    2. Experimental, Alternative, Avant Garde
    3. Corporate
    4. Commercials
    5. Music Videos
  18. Appendix F Screening List
    1. Short Films Showcased in the 5th Edition
    2. Collections
    3. Early Shorts by Well-Known Filmmakers
    4. Documentaries
    5. Experimental/Avant Garde/Poetic
    6. Animation
    7. Classic Shorts
  19. Appendix G Film and Media Programs
    1. Programs
    2. References
    3. United States and Canada
    4. International
  20. Appendix H Where Are They Now?
    1. Adam Davidson, The Lunch Date
    2. Jan Krawitz, Mirror Mirror
    3. Tatia Rosenthal, Crazy Glue
    4. James Darling, Citizen
    5. Jim Taylor, Memory Lane
    6. Luke Matheny, God of Love
  21. Glossary
  22. Bibliography/Software/Internet
  23. Index