Shihua Chen and Qian Wang
China has a long history but a relatively short journalism history. Before the nineteenth century, most ancient information media only circulated within bureaucracies in order to maintain the ruling class. Modern journalism started in the early nineteenth century. The first Chinese newspapers and magazines were set up by missionaries to preach religion, mainly in the Southeast. From the middle of the nineteenth century, Chinese media established by Chinese intellectuals emerged and advanced the reforms of the Ch'ing dynasty and social modernization, finally leading to the collapse of the old regime. In the first half of the twentieth century, journalism was used by different political forces. Media became party organs to facilitate revolution and seize power in the conflict between the KMT and the CCP. After the foundation of the PRC, journalism was mainly the mouthpiece of the CCP; no commercial media existed until the 1980s. Afterward, journalism shifted emphasis from propaganda to economic reporting; commercial media emerged and succeeded in the market economy; and newspaper groups, broadcasting groups, and the Internet developed quickly. But party control still exists. Journalism in China still has to fight to survive under the double pressure of market and party.
China is a very ancient country and has experienced a different kind of media history compared to other nations. ...