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The International Encyclopedia of Media Studies, 7 Volume Set by Fabienne Darling-Wolf, Radhika Parameswaran, Erica Scharrer, Vicki Mayer, Sharon Mazzarella, Kelly Gates, John Nerone, Angharad N. Valdivia

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Changes in Children's Advertising in the United States

Nancy A. Jennings

ABSTRACT

Many children worldwide spend a considerable amount of time with media. However, children's exposure to advertising may differ as a reflection of different public policies enforced around the world. Many policies worldwide place limits on the amount of advertising permitted, yet concerns rise about the nature of the messages (whether few or many) that children encounter. Therefore, this literature review will examine advertising messages that appear in children's media environments, focusing on television content and then exploring advertising in new media, specifically online advertising. Content analyses of electronic advertising reflect the interplay between public policy, industry self-regulation, and marketplace forces. As such, the United States provides an example of how these three forces operate together and is the focus of this review.

Many children growing up in the world today spend a considerable amount of time in front of the television screen. For example, recent research indicates that US children ages 8–18 spend a little over 7½ hours with media per day, and over half of that time (4½ hours) is spent with TV content (Rideout, Foehr, & Roberts, 2010). Irish children ages 4–14 spent an average of over 2½ hours per day watching television between 2000 and 2002 (Broadcasting Commission of Ireland [BCI], 2003). Similarly, Australian children ages 0–14 ...

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