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Data Visualization: Representing Information on Modern Web by Swizec Teller, Ændrew Rininsland, Simon Timms, Andy Kirk

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Static type checking with TypeScript and Flow

Static type checking is where you have a process that looks at how variables are being used, and then throws a wobbly if you do something weird. By this, I mean that it looks at the type of each variable and uses type annotations (bits of text defining what type a variable is when the variable itself is defined) to ensure that functions don't mutate a variable in an unexpected way. This is called static typing, and it is a feature built into many robust languages, such as C++ and Java. While JavaScript's dynamic typing (also shared by lots of other web languages, such as PHP and Ruby) is helpful in some ways and enables a certain style of programming, it can also be incredibly frustrating due to its ...

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