If your experiment needs statistics, you ought to have done a better experiment.

Ernest Rutherford

Optical metrology is the science and technology of using light for the purpose of measurement of a variety of variables and quantities. Light exhibits a dual character—both particle and wave nature. Both these characters, however, are not exhibited simultaneously. All the measurement techniques discussed in this book utilize the wave nature of light. The measurand, that is, the quantity to be measured, can alter any of the wave properties of light, namely, amplitude, phase, wavelength, frequency, and polarization. A large number of measurement techniques have been developed over the period utilizing light both as a sensor and as a carrier ...

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