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IP Routing Fundamentals by Mark A. Sportack

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IP Addressing

The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), architects of both the Internet and IP, elected to use machine-friendly numeric addresses for both networks and hosts. Therefore, each network in the Internet's second tier would have its own unique network number. The administrator(s) of this network would also have to ensure that all the hosts in the network had their own unique host number.

The original version of IP, IP Version 4 (IPv4), uses a 32-bit binary (base 2) address. Each address was organized as four 8-bit numbers separated by dots. Each 8-bit number is called an octet. Binary numbers are extremely machine friendly, but are not all user friendly. Therefore, provisions were made to support the use of the more intuitive decimal ...

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