Chapter 7

Negative Electrode Materials Based on Carbon

Lijun Fu, Yuping Wu, and Teunis van Ree

The chemistry of carbon is an old and dynamic field of research. Its use can be dated back to before the birth of Christ. Its industrial production and application started to develop in the mid-1800s. So far, although much has been well explored, there are still many unexplored aspects of this material. This element has several allotropes including graphite, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), diamond, fullerene, and graphene. Coal is also a form of carbon and has long been a cornerstone of modern industry. Graphite also has a long history, being used in pencils. In 1985, fullerenes were invented, and in 1991, CNTs were discovered. Fullerenes (from buckminsterfullerene, ...

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