Lijun Fu, Yuping Wu, and Teunis van Ree
Among the most important noncarbon negative electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries are titanium oxides, Si-based materials, Sn-based materials, Ge-based materials, Sb-based materials, phosphides, nano-oxides, and nitrides .
Titanium oxides include TiO2 and its composite oxides with lithium. In the case of the former, several structures are known, such as rutile, anatase, hollandite, and brookite (B-type). The composite oxides are mainly anatase Li0.5TiO2, spinel LiTi2O4, orthorhombic phase Li2Ti3O7, and spinel Li4Ti5O12 (Li4/3Ti5/3O4).
In the case of Li–Ti–O ternary compounds, the initial and reversible capacities are related ...