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Understanding the Network: A Practical Guide to Internetworking by Martin J. Michael

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TCP/IP and UNIX

In the early days of computing, operating systems were something the user built. Early computer systems came with a limited set of tools, which provided the capability to load, compile program routines, and perform basic I/O tasks. The "operating system" was developed by the programmer/users because everything was written in the assembler language specific to that computer (there was no Plug and Play in the early days). In the late 1960s, two fellows at Bell Labs, Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson, started working on a different approach to computer operating systems, known as UNIX. The goal was to develop a core operating system (the kernel) to manage the various hardware elements of the computer (CPU processing, memory management, ...

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