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C Primer Plus, Fourth Edition by Stephen Prata

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Key Concepts

A C program views input as stream of bytes; the source of this stream could be a file, an input device, such as a keyboard, or even the output of another program. Similarly, a C program views output as a stream of bytes; the destination could be a file, a video display, and so on.

How C interprets an input stream or output stream of bytes depends upon which input/output functions you use. A program can read and store the bytes unaltered, or it can interpret the bytes as characters, which, in turn, can be interpreted as ordinary text or as the text representation of numbers. Similarly, on output, the functions you use determine whether binary values are transferred unaltered or converted to text or textual representations of numbers. ...

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