In all ultrasonic processes, the power ultrasonic transducer is the essential starting point, with an understanding of this device being critical to the many applications that can follow. This chapter provides an introduction to the power transducer, including the basic vibration theory that underlies its operation, the elements of piezoelectric materials and transducer construction, the means by which transducers are controlled and characterized, and an introduction to modeling of transducer vibrations. The coverage is intended to be complementary to advanced aspects of transducers, materials, and processes treated elsewhere in this book
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