You have already encountered a few of the interesting protocols. Here is a list of some of the most common ones:
RFC 791 The Internet Protocol— This is the granddaddy of them all. It is the low-level Internet protocol (IP).
RFC 792 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)— Defines the informational messages that hosts and routers use to exchange control information as opposed to data.
RFC 793 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)— Defines the standard, connection-oriented, guaranteed-delivery protocol that so much of the Internet is based on.
RFC 768 User Datagram Protocol (UDP)— Defines the standard datagram protocol used by many standard Internet protocols.
RFC 826 Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)— Defines ...