xii Table of Contents
Depth Map versus Raytraced Shadows 166
e Varnished Table 167
BEING CREATIVE WITH TEXTURES FOR BUMP MAPS: MAKING A
ROADAND A SIDEWALK 167
More Bump Maps 167
Completing the Scene: Creating a Light Pole and Painting 3D Geometry to
Make Grass 170
CREATING A LAYERED TEXTURE IN PIXELMATOR 171
Photographs for Textures 171
Working outside of Maya 171
e Uses of Bit-Mapped Images 172
Blending Layers 172
Rusty, Painted Metal 173
LAYERING CAPABILITY NATIVE TO MAYA 173
Brief Note: Various Color Systems 177
CYLINDRICAL PROJECTION OF AN IMAGE TEXTURE ON THE CACTUS 177
Projection or Normal Texture? 177
Projecting Textures 179
Conversion to Polygons 179
Types of Projections 180
Tiling 181
Adjusting the Projection of a Texture 182
STITCHING NURBS SURFACES TO MAKE CARPETED STAIRS 183
Isoparms 184
Connecting Stairs 186
Putting a Material on the Stairs 186
Using the Append to Polygon Tool for Connecting Two Stairs 186
USING A FILE TEXTURE AS A MATERIALS COLOR AND MAKING A
MATERIAL STICK 187
A Texture as a Color of a Material 188
Assigning an Image to a Materials Color Attribute 188
Adjusting and Fixing the Material Placement 190
Adjusting the Materials Ambient Color Attribute 190
USING POLYGON FACE EXTRUSION AND A FILE TEXTURE AS A
LAMBERT COLOR TO MAKE AN ICE RINK 190
Table of Contents xiii
Extruding the Wall 190
Using a File Texture for the Fence 191
Using Two Layers for Ice 193
Textures versus Geometry: Bump Maps versus Displacement Maps 194
BUMP MAPS VERSUS DISPLACEMENT MAPS IN MAYA 195
Bump Maps 195
Displacement Maps 195
e Resulting Render: Comparing Bump Maps to Displacement Maps 195
Chapter 6 Particle Dynamics 199
USE EMITTERS SPARINGLY 199
SAVING RENDER TIME 200
ROCKET POLLUTION AND HARDWARE PARTICLES 200
e Attributes of the Emitter and the Particles 201
USING SOFTWARE PARTICLES IN nDYNAMICS TO CREATE TRIX 202
nDynamics in Maya 203
Particle Dynamics Engines and Solvers 203
Emitting Trix into the Glass Bowl 204
Colliders 204
Scaling the Trix 205
Ramp Textures 205
e Trix’s Ramp 207
Gravity 208
Action! 208
An Aside 208
CREATING A CLOTH FLAG WITH nDYNAMICS 209
nDynamics Meets Geometry 209
A Flag 209
Putting a Texture on the Flag 212
Making the Flag Flap 212
CREATING RAIN WITH nDYNAMICS 213
Downward Gravity versus the Upward Bounce of a Collider 213
Two Planes: Rain Clouds and the Ground 213
Rain Particles 214
e Ground 214
xiv Table of Contents
Making It Rain 214
Instancing 215
SPECIALIZED DYNAMICS APPLICATIONS 217
Chapter 7 A First Look at Adding Animation 219
MOVING AN OBJECT ALONG A MOTION PATH 219
Creating a Path 220
Putting an Object on a Path 221
From the Camera’s Perspective: A River Ride 222
KEYFRAMING AN OBJECT 225
e Timeline 225
Creating Keyframes 225
USING THE GRAPH EDITOR TO REUSE ANIMATION 226
e Graph Editor 227
Motion Cycles 227
Driven Keys 229
USING SKELETONS TO SIMULATE NATURAL MOVEMENT 230
Inverse Kinematics versus Forward Kinematics 231
Inverse Kinematics in a Leg 231
e Power of Inverse Kinematics Skeletons 233
Chapter 8 The Fuzzy Border between Modeling and Animating 235
USING NURBS, SHATTER, AND FUR TO MAKE AN EGG AND CRACK IT 235
Smooth Modeling for an Egg 235
Cracking the Egg with the Shatter Tool 235
A Chick and Fur 236
Maya Fur and nHair: An nDynamics Eect 237
USING BLEND SHAPE TO ANIMATE THE LEG OF THE CHICK
BEINGBORN 246
Animating a Chick Leg with a Blend Shape 246
USING A BEND DEFORMER TO ANIMATE ROLLING UP A POOL COVER 249
e Bend Deformer 249
Animating a Swimming Pool Cover 249
BOUNCING A SQUISHY BALL WITH A SQUASH DEFORMER 251
Keyframing the Ball 251
Running and Rendering the Scene 252
Table of Contents xv
USING THE LATTICE DEFORMER TO DAMAGE OUR MAILBOX 253
Morphing the Mailbox 253
e Rendered Result 254
A Note on Using the Lattice Deformer 254
USING DEFORMERS FOR MODELING: AN IMPORTANT DETAIL 255
Chapter 9 Light Fog, Fluids, and Another Look at Materials 257
FIXING A TILED TEXTURE WITH OVERLAYS 257
Experimenting with Textures 258
Adding Noise to the Tiling Lines 258
Two Final Notes on Tiling 259
MAKING A SEAMLESS TEXTURE WITH MAYA PAINT 261
Painting a Seamless Tiled Texture 261
Creating and Tiling a File Texture 261
MAKING GLASS BOTTLES WITH NURBS AND MENTAL RAY 262
e ree Bottles 262
mental ray Settings 263
A Bottle inside a Bottle 263
e Render 264
GLASS AND PARTICLES FOR A SINGLE-FRAME IMAGE 265
e Scene 265
Fluid Containers 265
mental ray Glass 266
e Background 267
Rendering Settings 267
USING LIGHT FOG AND GLOW TO CREATE A NIGHT SCENE 269
Fog 270
A Sidewalk and Street Scene with Fog 270
Making a Material Behave Like a Light 273
e Render 273
Chapter 10 An Example Model: A Closet 275
MULTIPLE COORDINATE SYSTEMS IN MAYA 275
OPENING AND CLOSING DOORS WITH THE ROTATE TOOL, AND
BOUNDING BOXES 276
Adding Detail to the Doors with the Interactive Split Tool 277

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