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Emerging Nanotechnologies for Diagnostics, Drug Delivery and Medical Devices by Abhirup Mandal, Kishore Cholkar, Ashim K Mitra

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4. Nanotechnology-Based Implantable Devices and Bionics

NEMS are currently emerging as the next generation of miniature devices integrated with electrical and mechanical functionalities. The benefits associated with NEMS, such as low mass, potentially large quantum mechanical effects, high mechanical resonance frequencies, low power consumption, low fabrication costs, low force constants, and a high surface-to-volume ratio, make these devices highly suitable for sensing and drug delivery applications [190]. Two different general fabrication techniques such as (1) traditional electron beam lithography and (2) chemical properties of individual molecules for building such devices from the “bottom up” method are generally used to fabricate NEMS systems ...

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