1. For a fuller description of organizational boundaries and their effect, see Ron Ashkenas, Dave Ulrich, Todd Jick, and Steve Kerr, The Boundaryless Organization: Breaking the Chains of Organizational Structure, Second Edition, Jossey-Bass, 2002.
2. The concept of “stretch” has some similarity to what Collins and Porras call a BHAG, a “big hairy audacious goal.” James C. Collins and Jerry I. Porras, Built to Last: Successful Habits of Visionary Companies, New York: HarperCollins, 1997.
3. See the article, “Managers Can Avoid Wasting Time,” by Ronald N. Ashkenas and Robert H. Schaffer, Harvard Business Review, (May–June 1982).
4. A more extensive explanation of how Work-Out fosters a new level of organizational dialogue ...