Abundance and Metallurgy


Chemical elements are distributed in the earth’s crust, in the universe and in the oceans. The average relative amount of an element in any natural system (earth, stars, solar system, oceans etc.) is called its abundance.

Chemical elements in the Earth’s Crust

There are only 16 most abundant elements in the earth’s crust. Out of these 16, only 8 are main elements. They are O, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Na, K and Mg. They constitute about 98% by weight. Oxygen and Si are most abundant and form about 75% of the crust. % of main elements

The remaining 8 elements are less than 1% each.

Elements less than 1%

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