2.3. Six Forces Working Together

As their natures suggest, the six forces complement each other in their opposition. When expansive forces become too strong, integrative forces are triggered to maintain cohesion. It becomes more difficult for the nerve system to function effectively when expansive forces are adding new markets at greater distances across the globe. Toyota's accelerated expansion after 2002 saw increased investments aimed at nourishing the nerve system to increase opportunities for employees to meet, get to know each other, and work together in formal and informal ways. Toyota also published its handbook, The Toyota Way 2001, to reinforce the founders' philosophies of genchi genbutsu, respect for people, the customer first, and kaizen in the behavior of global managers.

Another example of how the forces support each other is in the interaction of the expansive force of experimentation with the integrative force of kaizen as a founders' philosophy. Whether improvement is day-to-day as in kaizen or occurs in a leap, both are methods of experimentation for learning how to make things better than before. Experimentation is bolstered by the nerve system and the philosophy of respect for people, both integrative forces. Mutual respect cultivates open and honest communication for better-informed experimentation. And the integrative force of up-and-in human resource management is another support for experimentation as it views failure in terms of what has been learned ...

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