A perfect gas (or ideal gas) can be defined as a gaseous mass which obeys the following relation

where *p* is the pressure (in dynes per square centimetre) exerted by a given mass of the gas occupying a volume *v* at absolute temperature *T. R* is a constant which depends on the mass of the gas and is independent of its pressure, volume and temperature. The mathematical relation connecting the three thermodynamic parameters *p*, *v*, and *T* of a substance is called its equation of state. The state of the gas represented by Eq. 5.1 holds approximately for the so-called permanent gases which cannot be liquefied under ...

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