Network laws or theorems help to analyse circuits in a much simpler way. In this section, we discuss some frequently used network laws and theorems, namely, Kirchoff’s laws, superposition theorem, and Thévenin and Norton theorems.

1.3.1 Kirchoff's Laws

The two Kirchoff’s laws are Kirchoff’s voltage and Kirchoff’s current laws. Kirchoff’s voltage law (KVL) states that the sum of voltages between successive nodes in a closed path in a circuit is equal to zero. Kirchoff’s current law states that the algebraic sum of currents in all the branches that converge in a common node in a circuit is zero.

Kirchoff’s Voltage Law. Consider the circuit in Fig.1.3. The KVL equation for this circuit is:


FIGURE 1.3 A network having ...

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