The main drawback of a collector-coupled astable multivibrator is that the circuit may not necessarily oscillate when VCC is switched ON. It is possible that both Q1 and Q2 may be ON because of the inherent symmetry in the circuit. For oscillations to build up, one device may need to be switched into the OFF state by connecting its base to the emitter for a short duration. This disadvantage can be overcome in an emitter-coupled astable multivibrator as shown in Fig. 7.16(a). The circuit operates in such a fashion that Q1 switches between cut-off and saturation, and Q2 switches between the cut-off and active regions.

When Q1 is OFF, VCN1 = VCC1 = VBN2. If Q2 (when ON) is to be in the active region,

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