6.6 THE SATURATION PARAMETERS OF A TRANSISTOR AND THEIR VARIATION WITH TEMPERATURE
The output characteristics of n–p–n transistor having PT = 250 mW at room temperature in the CE configuration are given in Fig. 6.36. The dc load line for RL = 400 Ω is superimposed on the characteristics. However, from the characteristics in Fig. 6.36 the saturation voltage VCE(sat) can not be found as its value is typically a fraction of a volt (0.1 V for Ge and 0.2 V for Si). A transistor is said to be in saturation when the emitter and collector diodes are forward-biased.
RL = 400 Ω, VCC = 10 V
To draw the dc load line:
VCE(cut-off) = VCC = 10 V
To be able ...