Employee Engagement Index, Gallup Management Journal, 2008.
 The phenomenon of learned helplessness was discovered in the 1970s by social psychologists, including Martin Seligman, who were studying depression and the effects of stress. They took three rats and separated them and put them into cubicles. Rat C was the control rat. They hooked Rats A and B to electrodes that gave them synchronized shocks at random intervals. The researchers measured the effects of this outside stress by giving each rat an escape task. They found that a little bit of stress is actually good for performance. Rats A and B performed better than Rat C. The scientists continued ...