1. Code deployment lead time is the time required to go from “change committed into version control” by Development to “successfully running in production.”

2. For monolithic Ruby on Rails front-end.

3. Jez Humble, Gene Kim, and Puppet Labs, “2013 State of DevOps Infographic,” Puppet Labs website, accessed July 14, 2014,

4. Jez Humble, Nigel Kersten, Gene Kim, and Nicole Forsgren Velasquez, “2014 State of DevOps Report,” Puppet Labs website, accessed July 15, 2014,

5. Along with the adoption of Lean principles, other techniques widely adopted included the Toyota Production System, Lean Manufacturing, Theory of Constraints, Six Sigma, and ...

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