- 9.1 PLANAR-MIRROR WAVEGUIDES
- 9.2 PLANAR DIELECTRIC WAVEGUIDES
- 9.3 TWO-DIMENSIONAL WAVEGUIDES
- 9.4 OPTICAL COUPLING IN WAVEGUIDES
- 9.5 PHOTONIC-CRYSTAL WAVEGUIDES
- 9.6 PLASMONIC WAVEGUIDES
Jean-Daniel Colladon (1802–1893)
John Tyndall (1820–1893)
Total internal reflection, the basis of guided-wave optics, was first demonstrated in water jets in the mid-1800s by the Swiss physicist Jean-Daniel Colladon and by the Irish-born physicist John Tyndall.
Traditional optical instruments and systems make use of bulk optics, in which light is transmitted between different locations in the form of beams that are collimated, relayed, focused, and scanned by mirrors, lenses, and prisms. The beams diffract and broaden as they propagate although they can be refocused by the use of lenses and mirrors. However, the bulk optical components that comprise such systems are often large and unwieldy, and objects in the paths of the beams can obstruct or scatter them.
In many circumstances it is advantageous to transmit optical beams through dielectric conduits rather than through free space. The technology for achieving ...