Chapter 18 LEDS AND LASER DIODES

  1. 18.1 LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES
    1. A. Injection Electroluminescence
    2. B. LED Characteristics
    3. C. Materials and Device Structures
    4. D. Silicon Photonics
    5. E. Organic LEDs
    6. F. LED Lighting
  2. 18.2 SEMICONDUCTOR OPTICAL AMPLIFIERS
    1. A. Gain and Bandwidth
    2. B. Pumping
    3. C. Heterostructures
    4. D. Quantum-Well Structures
    5. E. Superluminescent Diodes
  3. 18.3 LASER DIODES
    1. A. Amplification, Feedback, and Oscillation
    2. B. Power and Efficiency
    3. C. Spectral and Spatial Characteristics
  4. 18.4 QUANTUM-CONFINED LASERS
    1. A. Quantum-Well and Multiquantum-Well Lasers
    2. B. Quantum-Wire and Multiquantum-Wire Lasers
    3. C. Quantum-Dot and Multiquantum-Dot Lasers
    4. D. Quantum Cascade Lasers
  5. 18.5 MICROCAVITY LASERS
    1. A. Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers
    2. B. Microdisk and Microring Lasers
    3. C. Photonic-Crystal Lasers
  6. 18.6 NANOCAVITY LASERS
Image described by caption.

The operation of semiconductor laser diodes was reported nearly simultaneously in 1962 by independent research teams from the General Electric Corporation, IBM Corporation, and Lincoln Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Light can be emitted from a semiconductor material as a result of electron–hole recombination. Nevertheless, materials capable of emitting such light do not glow at room temperature because the concentrations of thermally excited electrons and holes are too small to produce discernible radiation. However, an external source of ...

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