- 18.1 LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES
- 18.2 SEMICONDUCTOR OPTICAL AMPLIFIERS
- 18.3 LASER DIODES
- 18.4 QUANTUM-CONFINED LASERS
- 18.5 MICROCAVITY LASERS
- 18.6 NANOCAVITY LASERS
The operation of semiconductor laser diodes was reported nearly simultaneously in 1962 by independent research teams from the General Electric Corporation, IBM Corporation, and Lincoln Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Light can be emitted from a semiconductor material as a result of electron–hole recombination. Nevertheless, materials capable of emitting such light do not glow at room temperature because the concentrations of thermally excited electrons and holes are too small to produce discernible radiation. However, an external source of ...