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GMDSS for Navigators

Book Description

The Global Maritime distress and Safety System (GMDSS) is becoming the all-embracing term for communication and data transfer between ship and shore, and ship and ship. It's a highly automated system of terrestrial satellite communications technology whose primary role is to maintain safety of life at sea. Within the next five years all vessels over 300 tonnes will be required to carry GMDSS equipment. The seafaring nations of the world have together established the rules and regulations for good working practices within the system, and every serving and future navigating officer will be required to hold the GMDSS General Operator's Certificate. GMDSS for Navigators brings together in one publication the knowledge required by anyone who wants to become a qualified and competent operator of GMDSS communications equipment. It should prove to be the accepted universal reference for GMDSS training.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Table of Contents
  6. Preface
  7. Glossary
  8. PART 1: KNOWLEDGE OF THE BASIC FEATURES OF THE MARITIME MOBILE SERVICE AND THE MARITIME MOBILE SATELLITE SERVICE
    1. THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND BASIC FEATURES OF THE MARITIME MOBILE SERVICE
      1. Types of Communication in the Maritime Mobile Service
        1. Distress, Urgency, and Safety Communications
        2. Public Correspondence
        3. Port Operations Service
        4. Ship Movement Service
        5. Intership Communications
        6. On-Board Communications
      2. Types of Station in the Maritime Mobile Service
        1. Ship Station
        2. Coast Station
        3. Pilot Stations, Port Stations
        4. Aircraft Station
        5. Rescue Coordination Centre (RCC)
        6. The First RCC
      3. Elementary Knowledge of Frequencies and Frequency Bands
        1. The Concept of Frequency
        2. The Equivalence Between Frequency and Wavelength
        3. The Radio Frequency Spectrum
        4. The Unit of Frequency
        5. The Subdivision of the Most Significant Parts of the Radio Frequency Spectrum
      4. Characteristics of Frequencies
        1. Different Propagation Mechanisms: Propagation in Free Space, Ground Wave, Ionospheric Propagation
        2. Communications Systems
        3. Modulation
        4. The Ionosphere
        5. Propagation of MF Frequencies
        6. Propagation of Different HF Frequency Bands
        7. Propagation of VHF and UHF Frequencies
      5. Knowledge of the Role of the Various Modes of Communication
        1. Digital Selective Calling (DSC)
        2. Radiotelephony
        3. Narrow Band Direct Printing (NBDP) Telegraphy
        4. Facsimile
        5. Data
        6. Morse Telegraphy
      6. Elementary Knowledge of Different Types of Modulation and Classes of Emission
        1. Classes of Emission
        2. Carrier Frequency and Assigned Frequency
        3. Bandwidth of Different Emissions
        4. Official Designations ofEmissions
        5. Unofficial Designations of Emissions
      7. Frequencies Allocated in the Maritime Mobile Service
        1. The Usage of MF, HF, VHF, UHF, and SHF Frequencies in the Maritime Mobile Service
        2. The Concept of Radio Channel, Simplex, Semi- Duplex, and Duplex, Paired and Unpaired Frequencies
        3. Frequency Plans and Channelling Systems
        4. MF Telephony and NBDP – Additional Provisions Applying to Region 1
        5. GMDSS Distress and Safety Frequencies
        6. Distress and Safety Frequencies of the Pre-GMDSS System
        7. Calling Frequencies
    2. THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND BASIC FEATURES OF THE MARITIME MOBILE SATELLITE SERVICE
      1. Basic Knowledge of Satellite Communications
        1. INMARSAT Space Segment
        2. Modes of Communication
        3. Telephone Services
        4. Data and Facsimile Communications
        5. Store and Forward Operation
        6. Distress and Safety Communications
        7. INMARSAT-A Communications Services
        8. INMARSAT-C Communications Services
        9. INMARSAT Enhanced Group Call (EGC) System
      2. Types of Station in the Maritime Mobile Satellite Service
        1. Coast Earth Station (CES)
        2. Network Coordination Station (NCS)
        3. Ship Earth Station (SES)
        4. INMARSAT SES-NCS-CES Sequencing
  9. PART 2:DETAILED PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE AND ABILITY TO USE THE BASIC EQUIPMENT OF A SHIP STATION
    1. KNOWLEDGE OF AND ABILITY TO USE IN PRACTICE, THE BASIC EQUIPMENT OF A SHIP STATION
      1. Watchkeeping Receivers
        1. The Controls and Usage of the 2182 kHz Watch Receiver
        2. The Controls and Usage of VHF DSC Watch Receiver
        3. The Controls and usage of MF DSC Watch Receiver and MF/HF Watch Receiver
      2. VHF Radio Installation
        1. Channels
        2. Controls and Usage
      3. MF/HF Radio Installation
        1. Frequencies
        2. Typical Controls and Usage
        3. Connecting the Power
        4. Selecting Receive (Rx) Frequency
        5. Selecting Transmit (Tx) Frequency
        6. Selecting ITU Channel Number
        7. Tuning the Transmitter
        8. Selecting the Class of Emission
        9. Using Volume Control and Squelch
        10. Using Clarifier or Receiver (Rx) Fine Tuning
        11. Controlling Radio Frequency (RF) Gain
        12. Using Automatic Gain Control (AGC)
        13. Using the 2182 kHz Instant Selector
        14. Testing the Radiotelephone Alarm Generator
        15. Using the Radiotelephone Alarm Generator
      4. Antennas
        1. Isolators
        2. VHF Whip Antennas
        3. MF/HF Whip Antennas
        4. MF/HF Wire Antennas
        5. Construction of an Emergency Antenna
      5. Batteries
        1. Different Kinds of Batteries and their Characteristics
        2. Lead Acid Batteries
        3. Nickel-Cadmium Batteries (NICADs)
        4. Charging
        5. Constant Current Charge
        6. Constant Voltage Charge
        7. Trickle Charge
        8. Connecting Batteries
        9. Ampere-Hours (AH)
        10. Maintenance of Batteries
        11. Specific Gravity
        12. Safety
        13. Uninterrupted Power Supplies (UPS)
        14. Terminology
        15. Fuses
      6. Survival Craft Radio Equipment
        1. A Survival Craft Station
        2. Portable Two-Way VHF Radiotelephone Apparatus
        3. Search And Rescue Radar Transponder (SART)
        4. Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB)
    2. DIGITAL SELECTIVE CALLING (DSC)
      1. Call Format Specifier
        1. Distress Call
        2. All Ships Call
        3. Call to Individual Station
        4. Geographic Area Call
        5. Group Call
        6. Automatic/Semi-Automatic Service
      2. Call Address Selection with the MMSI (Maritime Mobile Service Identities) Number System
        1. The Nationality Identification
        2. Maritime Identification Digits (MID)
        3. Group Calling Numbers
        4. Coast Station Numbers
        5. MMSI Number With Three Trailing Zeros
      3. Call Categorization
        1. Distress
        2. Urgency
        3. Safety
        4. Ship Business
        5. Routine
      4. Call Telecommand and Traffic Information
        1. Distress Alerts
        2. Other Calls
        3. Medical Transport
        4. Test
        5. Unable to Comply
        6. Working Frequency Information
    3. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF NARROW BAND DIRECT PRINTING (NBDP) AND TELEX OVER RADIO (TOR) SYSTEMS. ABILITY TO USE MARITIME NBDP AND TOR EQUIPMENT IN PRACTICE
      1. Narrow Band Direct Printing (NBDP)
        1. NBDP Systems
        2. Automatic Systems
        3. Semi-Automatic Systems
        4. Manual Systems
        5. ARQ (Automatic Request Query)
        6. FEC (Forward Error Correction)
        7. ISS/IRS Arrangement
        8. Master and Slave
        9. Radio Telex Number
        10. Answerback
        11. Numbering of the SSFC (Sequential Single Frequency Code)
        12. TOR (Telex Over Radio) Equipment
        13. Controls and Indicators
        14. Keyboard Operation
    4. KNOWLEDGE OF THE USAGE OF INMARSAT SYSTEMS. ABILITY TO USE INMARSAT EQUIPMENT OR SIMULATOR IN PRACTICE
      1. INMARSAT-A Ship Earth Station
        1. Satellite Acquisition
        2. Telex Services
        3. Telephone Services
        4. Data and Facsimile Communications
      2. INMARSAT EGC Receiver
        1. Pre-programming an SES for EGC Message Reception
        2. Selecting Operating Mode for EGC Reception
      3. INMARSAT-C Ship Earth Station (SES)
        1. Components of an INMARSAT-C Terminal
        2. Entering/Updating Position
        3. Usage of an INMARSAT-C Terminal
        4. Sending and Receiving Text Messages
    5. FAULT LOCATING
  10. PART 3:OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES AND DETAILED PRACTICAL OPERATION OF GMDSS SYSTEM AND SUBSYSTEMS
    1. GLOBAL MARITIME DISTRESS AND SAFETY SYSTEM (GMDSS)
      1. Rescue Coordination Centres (RCCs) and Maritime Rescue Coordin ation Centres (MRCCs)
      2. Australian Maritime Safety Authority – AMSA
      3. Shipboard Communications Equipment
      4. Maritime Safety Information (MSI)
      5. Sea Areas and the GMDSS Master Plan
      6. Watchkeeping on Distress Frequencies
      7. Functional Requirements of Ship Stations
        1. Operational Requirements
      8. Carriage Requirements of Ship Stations
        1. Minimum Requirements for All Ships
        2. Documents to be Carried On Board
      9. Sources of Energy for Ship Stations
      10. Means of Ensuring Availability of Ship Station Equipment
        1. Duplication of Equipment
      11. Licences, Radio Safety Certificates, Inspections and Surveys
        1. Operator's Certificates
        2. Licences
        3. Categories of Ship Stations
    2. INMARSAT USAGE IN THE GMDSS
      1. INMARSAT-A Ship Earth Station
        1. Distress Communications
        2. Use of the Distress Facility
        3. Access to Rescue Services
        4. Satellite Acquisition
        5. Telex and Telephony Distress Calls (Ship to MRCCTelex Mode)
        6. Procedures for Distress Calls
        7. Rescue Coordination Centres Associated with the Coast Earth Stations
      2. INMARSAT-C Ship Earth Station
        1. Distress and Safety Services
        2. Sending a Distress Alert
        3. Sending a Distress Priority Message
        4. The INMARSAT-C Safety Services
        5. 2-Digit Code Safety Services
      3. INMARSAT Enhanced Group Call (EGC)
        1. Purpose of the EGC System
        2. All Ships Messages and INMARSAT System Messages
        3. Classes of INMARSAT-C SES and their EGC Reception
    3. NAVTEX
      1. The NAVTEX System
        1. International NAVTEX Service
        2. National NAVTEX Service
        3. Purpose of NAVTEX
        4. NAVTEX Frequencies
        5. Reception Range
        6. Message Format (Transmitter ID, Message Type, Message Number)
      2. NAVTEX Receiver
        1. Selection of Transmitters
        2. Selecting Message Type and, Messages Which Cannot be Rejected
        3. Prefix Codes
        4. Message Format Operation
        5. Use of Subsidiary Controls and Changing Paper
    4. EMERGENCY POSITION INDICATING RADIO BEACONS (EPIRBs)
      1. Satellite EPIRBs
        1. Basic Characteristics of Operation on 406MHz
        2. Local User Terminal (LUT)
        3. Basic Characteristics of Operation on 1.6 GHz
        4. 121.5 MHz Including Homing Function
        5. Information Contents of a Distress Alert
        6. Manual Usage
        7. Float-free Function
        8. Routine Maintenance
        9. Testing
        10. Checking Battery Expiry Date
        11. Cleaning of the Float-free Mechanism
        12. Satellite Compatible EPIRBs
    5. VHF DSC-EPIRB
      1. The Main Technical Characteristics
      2. Information Contents of a Distress Alert
      3. Manual Operation
      4. Float-free Function
      5. Routine Maintenance
      6. Checking Battery Expiry Date
      7. Cleaning of the Float-free Mechanism
    6. SEARCH AND RESCUE RADAR TRANSPONDER (SART)
      1. The Main Technical Characteristics
        1. Operation
        2. Range of a SART Transmitter
        3. Routine Maintenance of a SART
        4. Checking Battery Expiry Date
    7. DISTRESS, URGENCY AND SAFETY COMMUNICATION PROCEDURES IN THE GMDSS
      1. Distress Communications
        1. DSC Distress Alert
        2. The Definition of a Distress Alert
        3. The Transmission of a Distress Alert
        4. Transmission of a Shore to Ship Distress Alert Relay
        5. Transmission of a Distress Alert by a Station Not Itself in Distress
        6. Receipt and Acknowledgment of a DSC Distress Alert
        7. Acknowledgment Procedure by Radiotelephony
        8. Acknowledgment Procedure by NBDP
        9. Receipt and Acknowledgment by a Coast Station
        10. Receipt and Acknowledgment by a Ship Station
      2. Handling of Distress Alerts
        1. Preparations for Handling of Distress Traffic
        2. Distress Traffic Terminology
        3. Testing DSC Distress and Safety Calls
        4. On-Scene Communications
        5. Search and Rescue Operation
      3. Urgency and Safety Communications
        1. The Meaning of Urgency and Safety Communications
        2. Procedures for DSC Urgency and Safety Calls
        3. Urgency Communications
        4. Medical Transports
        5. Safety Communications
      4. Communication by Radiotelephony with Stations of the Old Distress and Safety System
        1. Radiotelephone Alarm Signal
        2. The Distress Signal
        3. Distress Call
        4. Distress Message
        5. Acknowledgment of Distress Message
        6. Distress Traffic
        7. Transmission of A Distress Message by a Station Not Itself in Distress
        8. Medical Advice
        9. Authority
        10. Radiotelephony Frequencies for SOLAS Procedures
        11. Identification
        12. Bridge to Bridge Communications
        13. Modes of Transmission
        14. Silence Periods
        15. Time Signals
      5. Reception of Maritime Safety Information (MSI)
        1. Reception by NAVTEX
        2. Reception by INMARSAT EGC
        3. EGC for Coastal Warnings
        4. EGC Addresses
        5. Reception by HF NBDP
        6. The Navigational Warning Signal of the Old Distress and Safety System
        7. The Navigational Warnings Transmitted by Radiotelephony
      6. Protection of Distress Frequencies
        1. Guard Bands
        2. Tests on Distress Frequencies
        3. Transmissions During Distress Traffic
        4. Avoiding Harmful Interference
        5. Prevention of Unauthorised Transmissions
    8. SEARCH AND RESCUE (SAR) OPERATION
      1. The Role of Rescue Coordination Centres (RCCs)
      2. Merchant Ship Search and Rescue (MERSSAR) Manual
      3. Maritime Rescue Organisations
      4. Ship Reporting Systems
  11. PART 4: MISCELLANEOUS SKILLS AND OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES FOR GENERAL COMMUNICATIONS
    1. ABILITY TO USE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, BOTH WRITTEN AND SPOKEN, FOR THE SATISFACTORY EXCHANGE OF COMMUNICATIONS RELEVANT TO THE SAFETY OF LIFE AT SEA
      1. Use of the International Code of Signals and the IMO Standard Marine Navigational Vocabulary/Seaspeak Reference Manual
      2. Recognised Standard Abbreviations and Commonly Used Service Codes
      3. Use of International Phonetic Alphabet
    2. OBLIGATORY PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES
      1. Effective Use of Obligatory Documents and Publications
      2. Radio Record Keeping
      3. Knowledge of the Regulations and Agreements Governing the Maritime Mobile Service and the Maritime Mobile Satellite Service
    3. PRACTICAL AND THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE OF GENERAL COMMUNICATION PROCEDURES
      1. Selection of Appropriate Communication Procedures
      2. Traffic Lists
      3. Radiotelephone Call
        1. Method of Calling a Coast Station by Radiotelephony
        2. Ordering for a Manually Switched Link Call (known as Call Request)
        3. Ending the Call
        4. Special Facilities of Calls
        5. Method of Calling a Coast Station by DSC
      4. Radiotelegram
        1. The parts of a Radiotelegram
        2. The Preamble
        3. Service Instructions and Indications
        4. Address
        5. Text
        6. Signature
        7. Addresses
        8. Full Address
        9. Registered Address
        10. Telephonic Address
        11. Telex Address
        12. Counting of Words
        13. Transmission of a Telegram by Radiotelephony
        14. Transmission of a Telegram by Radiotelex
      5. Traffic Charges
        1. AAIC Code
        2. International Charging System
        3. INMARSAT Communications Charging System
        4. Land Line Charge (LLC)
        5. Coast Charge (CC)
        6. Ship Charge (SC)
        7. Currencies Used in International Charging
      6. Practical Traffic Routines
      7. World Geography, Especially the Principal Shipping Routes and Related Communications Routes
  12. APPENDIX 1 Examination Syllabus
  13. APPENDIX 2 Radiotelephony in Practice
  14. APPENDIX 3 Putting It All Together
  15. APPENDIX 4 AMSA Safety Education Article No.64
  16. APPENDIX 5 AMSA AUSREP
  17. BIBLIOGRAPHY
  18. INDEX