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Python Programming On Win32 by Mark Hammond, Andy Robinson

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Language Features

Here are some of Python’s distinctive features:

Interpreted to bytecodes

Python code lives in text files ending in .py . The program compiles the text files to a machine-independent set of bytecodes in a way similar to Java, which are usually saved in files ending in .pyc; these can then later be imported and run quickly. The source is recompiled only when necessary. Python’s speed is of a similar order of magnitude to Java or Perl.

Very high level

All languages support basic types such as strings, integers, and floating-point numbers. Python has higher-level built-in types such as lists and dictionaries, and high-level operations to work on them. For example, you can load a file into a string with one line and split it into chunks based on a delimiter with another line. This means writing less code. It also means that the speed is better than you might suppose: the built-in functions have been written in C and extensively optimized by a lot of smart people, and are faster than C or C++ code you might write yourself.

Interactive mode

You can use Python interactively, entering expressions one line at a time. This mode allows you to try ideas quickly and cheaply, testing each function or method as you write it. This style of programming encourages experimentation and ideas. As with Smalltalk (with which it has much in common), the interactive mode is perhaps the major reason your productivity will increase with Python.

The interpreter is always available

Every Python program has the ability to compile and execute text files while running; there is no distinction between the runtime and development environments. This makes it a great macro language for other programs.

Clean syntax

The syntax is straightforward and obvious, and there are no cryptic special characters to learn. Indentation delimits blocks, so the visual structure of a chunk of code mirrors its logical structure; it’s easy to read and learn. Eric Raymond, one of the leaders of the Open Source movement, now recommends Python as the ideal first language to learn. (See his essay, “How to Become a Hacker,” located at http://www.tuxedo.org/~esr/faqs/hacker-howto.html.)

Advanced language features

Python offers all the features expected in a modern programming language: object-oriented programming with multiple inheritance, exception handling, overloading of common operators, default arguments, namespaces, and packages.

Introspection

Python can introspect to an uncanny degree. You can ask an object what attributes it has at runtime and give it new ones. Hooks are provided to let you control how functions are applied and what to, and when attributes are set and fetched. Magic Methods let you define the meaning of operators, so that you can define the + operation for a matrix class or trap what happens when someone accesses an item in a list. Features from other languages can often be easily implemented in Python itself.

Platform independence

Python is written in ANSI C and is available for a wide range of platforms including Windows, Unix, and Macintosh. The core language and standard libraries are identical on all platforms, although each platform offers its own dedicated extensions.

Extensible

Python is written in C in a modular architecture. It can be extended easily to add new features or APIs. If you want a new feature, you can add it and find plenty of help to do so.

Extensive libraries

The Python library, included in the standard installation, includes over 200 modules, covering everything from operating-system functions and data structures to full-blown web servers. The main Python web site provides a comprehensive index to the many Python projects and third-party libraries. Whatever your problem domain, you will probably find someone else working on it and a good base of code to start with.

Support

Python has a large and enthusiastic user community; it’s currently doubling in size every two years. So far, there are four books by O’Reilly alone and several by other publishers, eight annual Python conferences have been held, the comp.lang.python newsgroup on Usenet attracts well over 100 posts a day, and there are a growing number of consultants and small firms offering commercial support.

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