Pareto Chart and Fishbone
Diagram to Minimize Recyclable
Waste Disposal in a Town
Town XYZ collects the following recyclable trash from its residents: glass,
plastic, paper, aluminum, yard waste, and iron. One of its primary aims for
next year is to encourage residents to reuse the recyclables as much as pos-
sible before disposing of them.
Section 11.1 briey describes the dene and measure phases. Section 11.2
illustrates the analyze phase with detailed instructions for using Minitab
The improve and control phases are briey discussed in Section 11.3.
11.1 Define and Measure Phases
Of late, the town has been receiving excessive recyclable trash from its resi-
dents, and hence, the town hall aims to communicate to the residents differ-
ent ways to reuse the recyclables before the residents dispose of them. To this
end, the town hall collects data regarding how much waste of each category
was collected and recycled during the previous year. These data are in the
CHAPTER_11_1.MTW worksheet (the worksheet is available at the publish-
er’s website; the data from the worksheet are also provided in the Appendix).
Figure11.1 is a screenshot of the worksheet.
The town hall rst wishes to identify the categories of waste that contribute
the most to the total waste. A Pareto chart can be used for this purpose, and
Figure11.2 shows how to select a Pareto chart. Doing so will open the dialog
box shown in Figure11.3. Select the “Recycled Trash” column for “Defects
or attribute data in”, and “Number of Tons (in hundreds)” for “Frequencies
in”. Select the option of “Do not combine” so that the categories of waste
are not combined. Clicking on “Options” will open the dialog box shown in
Figure11.4. Enter the X-axis label as “Recycled Trash” and the Y-axis label
as “Number of Tons (in hundreds)”. Also, enter the title of the Pareto chart
as shown. Click on “OK” and it takes you back to the dialog box shown in
Figure11.3. Click on “OK” and the Pareto chart shown in Figure11.5 is the
186 Six Sigma Case Studies with Minitab
Selection of “Pareto Chart”.
187Pareto Chart and Fishbone Diagram to Minimize Recyclable Waste
result. It is clear from the Pareto chart that almost 40% of the recycled waste is
paper. Hence, the town hall decides to focus on minimizing the paper waste.
11.2 Analyze Phase
The employees of the town hall brainstorm to identify the different ways to
minimize the paper waste. They classify paper waste into three types: ofce,
kitchen, and other. The examples of these three types are in the C4, C5, and
C6 columns, respectively, in the CHAPTER_11_2.MTW worksheet (the work-
sheet is available at the publisher’s website; the data from the worksheet are
also provided in the Appendix). Figure11.6 is a screenshot of the worksheet.
Notice that, in addition to the examples in the C4, C5, and C6 columns, a
Entry of defects and frequencies for Pareto chart.
Entry of labels for Pareto chart.
188 Six Sigma Case Studies with Minitab
separate column is created for each example, where ways to minimize the
waste for that example have been listed. For example, for the “Ofce paper”
example in the C4 column, a separate column (C8) is used to list various
ways (“print on both sides”, “use email instead”, etc.) to minimize waste for
To facilitate understanding of the above by all the employees, a shbone
diagram can be created. Figure11.7 shows how to select a shbone diagram
(also called a cause-and-effect diagram). Doing so will open the dialog box
shown in Figure11.8. Select the three categories of paper waste for “Causes”
and type in the same names for “Label”, as shown in Figure11.9. Also, com-
plete the “Effect” and “Title” boxes as shown. Moreover, check the box for
“Do not display empty branches”.
er of Tons (in hundreds)
Number of Tons (in hundreds)
Pareto Chart for To wn XYZ Project
Data for paper waste.
189Pareto Chart and Fishbone Diagram to Minimize Recyclable Waste
Selection of shbone diagram (“Cause-and-Effect”).
Categories for branches of shbone diagram.