Had Compaq or IBM changed in ’88 or ’89, Dell would not have been a factor. Now Dell is driving the industry.
–Seymour Merrin, computer-industry consultant
Apple was struggling with the new realities of the rapidly growing computer industry, but every company found itself challenged to adapt. The fear in the fledgling personal-computer industry had been that IBM would enter the market and transform everything. That fear came true in the 1980s. But the personal-computer industry transformed IBM as well.
While Apple was losing its way in the wake of IBM’s entry into the market, IBM’s own fortunes followed a strange path. When IBM released its Personal Computer, very little about the machine was proprietary. IBM had embraced ...