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Fire in the Valley, 3rd Edition by Paul Freiberger, Michael Swaine

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Clones

Had Compaq or IBM changed in ’88 or ’89, Dell would not have been a factor. Now Dell is driving the industry.

–Seymour Merrin, computer-industry consultant

Apple was struggling with the new realities of the rapidly growing computer industry, but every company found itself challenged to adapt. The fear in the fledgling personal-computer industry had been that IBM would enter the market and transform everything. That fear came true in the 1980s. But the personal-computer industry transformed IBM as well.

Imitating IBM

While Apple was losing its way in the wake of IBM’s entry into the market, IBM’s own fortunes followed a strange path. When IBM released its Personal Computer, very little about the machine was proprietary. IBM had embraced ...

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