378 ◾ Information Systems: What Every Business Student Needs to Know
As you read this chapter, focus on these key concepts to use on the job:
1. Organizations can choose among dierent soware development processes.
2. Each process suits certain business situations and technologies.
3. Each process has a series of stages during which specic people carry out specic
tasks. Each process involves nontechnical people (the user side of the organization) at
4. e quality of the soware that emerges from any process depends on contributions
from all participants. Knowing what you are expected to contribute, and when, will
help you make a contribution and thus improve the quality of the resulting system.
OVERVIEW OF SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT
As you know, soware refers to instructions that tell a computer how to perform a job.
Soware consists of programs for specic tasks. A short program, such as you saw in
Figure 4.1, might be assigned in the rst week of a programming course. An application
package is probably tens of thousands of lines long. Enterprise-level information systems
have millions (Box 11.1). Figure 11.1 shows a tiny part of the Android operating system
module that splits a task over multiple processing units.
Conceptually, the process of developing a new custom system is simple:
1. An organization decides to use custom soware in a new system.
2. Someone gures out exactly what that soware should do.
3. If the system is large enough for more than one person to work on, someone divides
it into modules for dierent programmers.
4. ose programmers write sequences of instructions that guide the computer, step by
step, to carry out the tasks of each module.
5. People compile those modules and test them individually to conrm that each one
works properly. en they combine the modules and conrm that the entire system
6. e new system is installed on the organization’s computers.
7. Members of the organization use it.
BOX 11.1 FACTOID
SAP’s popular enterprise Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) has been estimated to contain
over 250 million lines of code. Every one of those lines was written by a programmer.