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Internet of Things for Architects

Book Description

Learn to design, implement and secure your IoT infrastructure

About This Book

  • Build a complete IoT system that is the best fit for your organization
  • Learn about different concepts, technologies, and tradeoffs in the IoT architectural stack
  • Understand the theory, concepts, and implementation of each element that comprises IoT design—from sensors to the cloud
  • Implement best practices to ensure the reliability, scalability, robust communication systems, security, and data analysis in your IoT infrastructure

Who This Book Is For

This book is for architects, system designers, technologists, and technology managers who want to understand the IoT ecosphere, various technologies, and tradeoffs and develop a 50,000-foot view of IoT architecture.

What You Will Learn

  • Understand the role and scope of architecting a successful IoT deployment, from sensors to the cloud
  • Scan the landscape of IoT technologies that span everything from sensors to the cloud and everything in between
  • See the trade-offs in choices of protocols and communications in IoT deployments
  • Build a repertoire of skills and the vernacular necessary to work in the IoT space
  • Broaden your skills in multiple engineering domains necessary for the IoT architect

In Detail

The Internet of Things (IoT) is the fastest growing technology market. Industries are embracing IoT technologies to improve operational expenses, product life, and people's well-being. An architectural guide is necessary if you want to traverse the spectrum of technologies needed to build a successful IoT system, whether that's a single device or millions of devices.

This book encompasses the entire spectrum of IoT solutions, from sensors to the cloud. We start by examining modern sensor systems and focus on their power and functionality. After that, we dive deep into communication theory, paying close attention to near-range PAN, including the new Bluetooth® 5.0 specification and mesh networks. Then, we explore IP-based communication in LAN and WAN, including 802.11ah, 5G LTE cellular, SigFox, and LoRaWAN. Next, we cover edge routing and gateways and their role in fog computing, as well as the messaging protocols of MQTT and CoAP.

With the data now in internet form, you'll get an understanding of cloud and fog architectures, including the OpenFog standards. We wrap up the analytics portion of the book with the application of statistical analysis, complex event processing, and deep learning models. Finally, we conclude by providing a holistic view of the IoT security stack and the anatomical details of IoT exploits while countering them with software defined perimeters and blockchains.

Style and approach

This hands-on guide combines theory and application to the Internet of Things. This book covers the entire architectural stack of components and engineering domains from sensors to power analysis, communication systems, information theory, networking and routing, data security, protocols, software stacks, cloud mechanics, and data analytics with deep learning.

Downloading the example code for this book You can download the example code files for all Packt books you have purchased from your account at http://www.PacktPub.com. If you purchased this book elsewhere, you can visit http://www.PacktPub.com/support and register to have the files e-mailed directly to you.

Table of Contents

  1. Preface
    1. Who this book is for
    2. What this book covers
    3. To get the most out of this book
      1. Download the color images
      2. Conventions used
    4. Get in touch
      1. Reviews
  2. The IoT Story
    1. History of the IoT
    2. IoT potential
      1. Industrial and manufacturing
        1. Industrial and manufacturing IoT use cases and impact
      2. Consumer
        1. Consumer IoT use cases
      3. Retail, financial, and marketing
        1. Retail IoT use cases
      4. Healthcare
        1. Healthcare IoT use cases
      5. Transportation and logistics
        1. Transportation and logistics  IoT use cases
      6. Agricultural and environmental
        1. Agricultural and environmental  IoT use cases
      7. Energy
        1. Energy IoT use cases
      8. Smart city
        1. Smart city IoT use cases
      9. Government and military
        1. Government and military IoT use cases
    3. Summary
  3. IoT Architecture and Core IoT Modules
    1. IoT ecosystem
      1. IoT versus machine to machine
      2. The value of a network and Metcalfe's and Beckstrom's law
      3. IoT architecture
      4. Role of an architect
    2. Part 1 – Sensing and power
    3. Part 2 – Data communication
    4. Part 3 – Internet routing and protocols
    5. Part 4 – Fog and edge compute, analytics, and machine learning
    6. Part 5 – Threat and security in IoT
    7. Summary
  4. Sensors, Endpoints, and Power Systems
    1. Sensing devices
      1. Thermocouples and temperature sensing
        1. Thermocouples
        2. Resistance Temperature Detectors
        3. Thermistors
        4. Temperature sensor summary
      2. Hall effect sensors and current sensors
      3. Photoelectric sensors
      4. PIR sensors
      5. LiDAR and active sensing systems
      6. MEMS sensors
        1. MEMS accelerometers and gyroscopes
        2. MEMS microphones
        3. MEMS pressure sensors
    2. Smart IoT endpoints
      1. Vision system
    3. Sensor fusion
    4. Input devices
      1. Output devices
    5. Functional examples (putting it all together)
      1. Functional example – TI SensorTag CC2650
      2. Sensor to controller
    6. Energy sources and power management
      1. Power management
      2. Energy harvesting
        1. Solar harvesting
        2. Piezo-mechanical harvesting
        3. RF energy harvesting
        4. Thermal harvesting
      3. Energy storage
        1. Energy and power models
        2. Batteries
        3. Supercapacitors
        4. Radioactive power sources
        5. Energy storage summary and other forms of power
    7. Summary
  5. Communications and Information Theory
    1. Communication theory
      1. RF energy and theoretical range
      2. RF interference
    2. Information theory
      1. Bitrate limits and the Shannon-Hartley theorem
      2. Bit error rate
      3. Narrowband versus wideband communication
    3. The radio spectrum
      1. Governing structure
    4. Summary
  6. Non-IP Based WPAN
    1. Wireless personal area network standards
      1. 802.15 standards
      2. Bluetooth
        1. Bluetooth history
        2. Bluetooth 5 communication process and topologies
        3. Bluetooth 5 stack
        4. Bluetooth 5 PHY and interference 
        5. Bluetooth packet structure
        6. BR/EDR operation
        7. BLE operation
        8. Bluetooth profiles
        9. BR/EDR security
        10. BLE security
        11. Beaconing
        12. Bluetooth 5 range and speed enhancement
        13. Bluetooth  mesh introduction
        14. Bluetooth mesh topology
        15. Bluetooth mesh addressing modes
        16. Bluetooth  mesh provisioning
      3. IEEE 802.15.4
        1. IEEE 802.15.4 architecture
        2. IEEE 802.15.4 topology
        3. IEEE 802.15.4 address modes and packet structure
        4. IEEE 802.15.4 start-up sequence
        5. IEEE 802.15.4 security
      4. Zigbee
        1. Zigbee history
        2. Zigbee overview
        3. Zigbee PHY and MAC (and difference from IEEE 802.15.4)
        4. Zigbee protocol stack
        5. Zigbee addressing and packet structure
        6. Zigbee mesh routing
        7. Zigbee association
        8. Zigbee security
      5. Z-Wave
        1. Z-Wave overview
        2. Z-Wave protocol stack
        3. Z-Wave addressing
        4. Z-Wave topology and routing
    2. Summary
  7. IP-Based WPAN and WLAN
    1. Internet protocol and transmission control protocol
      1. IP role in IoT
    2. WPAN with IP – 6LoWPAN
      1. 6LoWPAN topology
      2. 6LoWPAN protocol stack
      3. Mesh addressing and routing
      4. Header compression and fragmentation
      5. Neighbor discovery
      6. 6LoWPAN security
    3. WPAN with IP – Thread
      1. Thread architecture and topology
      2. Thread protocol stack
      3. Thread routing
      4. Thread addressing
      5. Neighbor discovery
    4. IEEE 802.11 protocols and WLAN
      1. IEEE 802.11 suite of protocols and comparison
      2. IEEE 802.11 architecture
      3. IEEE 802.11 spectrum allocation
      4. IEEE 802.11 modulation and encoding techniques
      5. IEEE 802.11 MIMO
      6. IEEE 802.11 packet structure
      7. IEEE 802.11 operation
      8. IEEE 802.11 security
      9. IEEE 802.11ac
      10. IEEE 802.11p vehicle-to-vehicle
      11. IEEE 802.11ah
    5. Summary
  8. Long-Range Communication Systems and Protocols (WAN)
    1. Cellular connectivity
      1. Governance models and standards
      2. Cellular access technologies
      3. 3GPP user equipment categories
      4. 4G-LTE spectrum allocation and bands
      5. 4G-LTE topology and architecture
      6. 4G-LTE E-UTRAN protocol stack
      7. 4G-LTE geographical areas, dataflow, and handover procedures
      8. 4G-LTE packet structure
      9. Cat 0, Cat 1, Cat M1, and NB-IoT
        1. LTE Cat-0
        2. LTE Cat-1
        3. LTE Cat-M1 (eMTC)
        4. LTE Cat-NB
      10. 5G
    2. LoRa and LoRaWAN
      1. LoRa physical layer
      2. LoRaWAN MAC layer
      3. LoRaWAN topology
      4. LoRaWAN summary
    3. Sigfox
      1. Sigfox physical layer
      2. Sigfox MAC layer
      3. Sigfox protocol stack
      4. Sigfox topology
    4. Summary
  9. Routers and Gateways
    1. Routing functions
      1. Gateway functions
      2. Routing
      3. Failover and out-of-band management
      4. VLAN
      5. VPN
      6. Traffic shaping and QoS
      7. Security functions
      8. Metrics and analytics
      9. Edge processing
    2. Software-Defined Networking
      1. SDN architecture
      2. Traditional internetworking 
      3. SDN benefits
    3. Summary
  10. IoT Edge to Cloud Protocols
    1. Protocols
    2. MQTT
      1. MQTT publish-subscribe
      2. MQTT architecture details
      3. MQTT packet structure
      4. MQTT communication formats
      5. MQTT working example
    3. MQTT-SN
      1. MQTT-SN architecture and topology
      2. Transparent and aggregating gateways
      3. Gateway advertisement and discovery
      4. Differences between MQTT and MQTT-SN
    4. Constrained Application Protocol
      1. CoAP architecture details
      2. CoAP Messaging Formats
      3. CoAP usage example
    5. Other protocols
      1. STOMP
      2. AMQP
    6. Protocol summary and comparison
    7. Summary
  11. Cloud and Fog Topologies
    1. Cloud services model
      1. NaaS
      2. SaaS
      3. PaaS
      4. IaaS
    2. Public, private, and hybrid cloud
      1. Private cloud
      2. Public cloud
      3. Hybrid cloud
    3. The OpenStack cloud architecture
      1. Keystone – identity and service management
      2. Glance – image service
      3. Nova compute
      4. Swift – Object Storage
      5. Neutron – Networking services
      6. Cinder – Block Storage
      7. Horizon
      8. Heat – orchestration (optional)
      9. Ceilometer – telemetry (optional)
    4. Constraints of cloud architectures for IoT
      1. Latency effect
    5. Fog computing
      1. The Hadoop philosophy for Fog computing
      2. Fog Computing versus Edge Computing versus cloud computing
      3. OpenFog Reference Architecture
        1. Application services
        2. Application support
        3. Node management and software backplane
        4. Hardware virtualization
        5. OpenFog node security
        6. Network
        7. Accelerators
        8. Compute
        9. Storage
        10. Hardware platform infrastructure
        11. Protocol abstraction
        12. Sensors, actuators, and control systems
      4. Amazon Greengrass and Lambda
      5. Fog Topologies
    6. Summary
  12. Data Analytics and Machine Learning in the Cloud and in the Fog
    1. Basic data analytics in IoT
      1. Top-level cloud pipeline
      2. Rules engines
      3. Ingestion – streaming, processing, and data lakes
      4. Complex event processing
      5. Lambda architecture
      6. Sector use cases
    2. Machine learning in IoT
      1. Machine learning models
      2. Classification
      3. Regression
      4. Random forest
      5. Bayesian models
      6. Convolutional Neural Networks
        1. First layer and filters
        2. Max pooling and subsampling
        3. Hidden layers and formal description on forwarding propagation
        4. CNN examples
        5. CNN training and backpropagation
      7. RNN
      8. Training and inference for IoT
      9. IoT data analytics and machine learning comparison and assessment
    3. Summary
  13. IoT Security
    1. Cyber security vernacular
      1. Attack and threat terms
      2. Defense terms
    2. Anatomy of IoT cyber attacks
      1. Mirai
      2. Stuxnet
      3. Chain Reaction
    3. Physical and hardware security
      1. Root of Trust
      2. Key management and trusted platform modules
      3. Processor and memory space
      4. Storage security
      5. Physical security
    4. Cryptography
      1. Symmetric cryptography
      2. Asymmetric cryptography
      3. Cryptographic hash (authentication and signing)
      4. Public Key Infrastructure 
      5. Network stack – Transport Layer Security
    5. Software defined perimeter
      1. Software-Defined Perimeter architecture
    6. Blockchains and cryptocurrencies in IoT
      1. Bitcoin (blockchain-based)
      2. IOTA (directed acyclical graph-based)
    7. Government regulations and intervention
      1. US Congressional Bill –Internet of Things (IoT) Cybersecurity Improvement Act of 2017
      2. Other governmental bodies
    8. IoT security best practices
      1. Holistic security
      2. Security checklist
    9. Summary
  14. Consortiums and Communities
    1. PAN consortia
      1. Bluetooth SIG
      2. Thread Group
      3. Zigbee Alliance
      4. Miscellaneous
    2. Protocol consortia
      1. Open Connectivity Foundation and Allseen Alliance
      2. OASIS
      3. Object Management Group
      4. IPSO Alliance
      5. Miscellaneous
    3. WAN consortia
      1. Weightless
      2. LoRa Alliance
      3. Internet Engineering Task Force
      4. Wi-Fi Alliance
    4. Fog and edge consortia
      1. OpenFog
      2. EdgeX Foundry
    5. Umbrella organizations
      1. Industrial Internet Consortium
      2. IEEE IoT
      3. Miscellaneous
    6. US government IoT and security entities
    7. Summary
  15. Other Books You May Enjoy
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