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Public Transport Planning and Management in Developing Countries
Public Transport Planning in Urban Areas
6.1 Urban transport planning
The development of the 3Cs (continuing, cooperative, and comprehensive) is very impor-
tant in the planning and development of sustainable transportation infrastructure.
a) Continuing speciﬁes that the planning process be ongoing, frequently reevaluating and
updating the transit plan to reﬂect changes in the urban area.
b) Cooperative is deﬁned as the need for coordination not only between the various levels of
government (local, state, and central), but also among individual agencies at the same level.
It also implies cooperation between disciplines during the planning process and mandates
that planning teams be interdisciplinary.
c) Comprehensive implies the set of the following 10 elements for which inventories and
analyses are required:
1. Economic factors aﬀecting development
3. Land use
4. Travel patterns
5. Existing transportation facilities
6. Terminal and transfer facilities
7. Traﬃc control features
8. Zoning ordinances, subdivision regulations, building codes, etc.
9. Financial resources
10. Numerous qualitative elements, including social and community value factors, such as
preservation of open space, environmental amenities, and aesthetics.
For any metropolitan planning organization (MPO) like the development authorities in In-
dian cities will typically include the sustainable transport infrastructure planning as shown
in Figure 6.1. As can be seen in the ﬁgure, any such organization should have a planning
works programe, based on both short term and long term planning elements. The short
term planning elements, generally known as transportation system management (TSM)
elements, are basically meant for eﬃcient use of existing and proposed infrastructure. To-
gether with short and long term elements, the organization will have annual and multiyear
transportation improvement programs, which will be frequently updated and monitored
from time to time.
Figure 6.2 gives the basic steps in a comprehensive urban transport infrastructure planning
process. The same are described as follows:
a. Deﬁnition of goals and objectives for the transportation system in the future.
b. Collection of inventories: data about the existing city and its transportation system.
c. Forecasts of changes and conditions in the selected target year for plans.
d. A set of criteria for plan evaluation derived from the goals and objectives.
e. Development of alternative infrastructure plans for the projected future conditions, meet-
ing the deﬁned goals.