Rules and Exceptions

Fons Trompenaars and Charles Hampden-Turner

PEOPLE EVERYWHERE are confronted with three sources of challenge. They have exceptional relationships with other people, such as friends, employees, customers, and bosses. They must manage time and aging. And they must somehow come to terms with the external nature of the world, be it benign or threatening.

We have already identified the five dimensions of human relationships. It is easiest to summarize these in abstract terms, which may seem rather abstruse. We list them again with some translations in parentheses.

1. Universalism versus particularism (rules versus exceptions)

2. Communitarianism versus individualism (the group versus the individual)

3. Neutral versus emotional ...

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